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Open AccessArticle

SelectedAspects of Iodate and Iodosalicylate Metabolism in Lettuce Including the Activity of Vanadium Dependent Haloperoxidases as Affected by Exogenous Vanadium

1
Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. 29 Listopada 54, 31-425 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Mushroom Processing, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow, Poland
3
Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. 29 Listopada 54, 31-425 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10010001
Received: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 16 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofortification of Crops)
In marine algae, vanadium (V) regulates the cellular uptake of iodine (I) and its volatilization as I2, the processes catalyzed by vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (vHPO). Relationships between I and vanadium V in higher plants, including crop plants, have not yet been described. Little is known about the possibility of the synthesis of plant-derived thyroid hormone analogs (PDTHA) in crop plants. The activity of vHPO in crop plants as well as the uptake and metabolism of iodosalicylates in lettuce have not yet been studied. This studyaimed to determine the effect of V on the uptake and accumulation of various forms of I, the metabolism of iodosalicylates and iodobenzoates and, finally, on the accumulation of T3 (triiodothyronine—as example of PDTHA) in plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata ‘Melodion’ cv.) cultivation in a hydroponic NutrientFilm Technique (NFT) system was conducted with the introduction of 0 (control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 µM V doses of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) in four independent experiments. No iodine treatment was applied in Experiment No. 1, while iodine compounds were applied at a dose of 10 µM (based on our own previous research) as KIO3, 5-iodosalicylic acid (5-ISA) and 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid (3,5-diISA) in Experiment Nos. 2, 3 and 4, respectively. When lettuce was grown at trace amount of I in the nutrient solution, increasing doses of V contributed to the increase of (a) I content in roots, (b) I uptake by whole lettuce plants (leaves + roots), and (c) vHPO activity in leaves (for doses 0.05–0.20 µM V). Vanadium was mainly found in roots where the content of this element increased proportionally to its dose. The content of V in leaves was not modified by V introduced into the nutrient solution. We found that5-ISA, 3,5-diISA and T3 were naturally synthesized in lettuce and its content increased when 5-ISA, 3,5-diISA were applied. Quantitative changes in the accumulation of organic metabolites (iodosalicylates and iodobenzoates) accumulation were observed, along with increased T3 synthesis, with its content in leaves exceeding the level of individual iodosalicylates and iodobenzoates. The content of T3 was not affected by V fertilization. It was concluded that iodosalicylates may participate in the biosynthesis pathway of T3—and probably of other PDTHA compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: beneficial elements; iodobenzoates; iodosalicylates; plant-derived thyroid hormone analogs; T3; thyroid hormone; triiodothyronine; vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases beneficial elements; iodobenzoates; iodosalicylates; plant-derived thyroid hormone analogs; T3; thyroid hormone; triiodothyronine; vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases
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Smoleń, S.; Kowalska, I.; Halka, M.; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, I.; Grzanka, M.; Skoczylas, Ł.; Czernicka, M.; Pitala, J. SelectedAspects of Iodate and Iodosalicylate Metabolism in Lettuce Including the Activity of Vanadium Dependent Haloperoxidases as Affected by Exogenous Vanadium. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1.

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