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Synthesis of Humin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Distributed Energy Systems, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808, China
Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Dongguan Cleaner Production Center, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 373;
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Polymeric Adhesives)
PDF [2289 KB, uploaded 18 August 2017]


Humins are low-value-added byproducts from the biomass acid hydrolysis process. In the present work, humins were first employed as a phenol replacement for synthesis of modified phenol-formaldehyde adhesives through a two-step process. In this process, humins were first utilized to obtain alkaline soluble products, mainly consisting of phenolics, through a hydrothermal process. The obtained alkaline soluble products then reacted with phenol and formaldehyde to produce humin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesive (HPFA). The physicochemical properties of HPFA, including viscosity, bonding strength, pH, free formaldehyde level, free phenol level and solid content, met the requirements of the GB/T 14732-2006 Chinese National Standard. View Full-Text
Keywords: humins; hydrothermal treatment; phenol-formaldehyde adhesive; hydrolysis humins; hydrothermal treatment; phenol-formaldehyde adhesive; hydrolysis

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Kang, S.; Fu, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, W.; Yin, H.; Xu, Y. Synthesis of Humin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive. Polymers 2017, 9, 373.

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