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Polymers 2017, 9(8), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9080329

The Influence of Calcium Glycerophosphate (GPCa) Modifier on Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Biological Performance of Polyurethanes Applicable as Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Scaffolds Fabrication

1
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdank University of Technology, Narutowicza St. 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
2
Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy Science of Ukraine, 14/16 Drahomanov Str., 79005 Lviv, Ukraine
3
Centre for Innovative Research in Medical and Natural Sciences, Rzeszow University and Medical Faculty, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
4
Department of Organic Materials Technology, Technical University of Radom, 26-600 Radom, Poland
5
Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Division of Physics and Technology of Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
6
Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of Polymers Applied to Biomedical Applications: Biointerface)
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Abstract

In this paper we describe the synthesis of poly(ester ether urethane)s (PEEURs) by using selected raw materials to reach a biocompatible polyurethane (PU) for biomedical applications. PEEURs were synthesized by using aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), α,ω-dihydroxy(ethylene-butylene adipate) (Polios), 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as a chain extender and calcium glycerolphosphate salt (GPCa) as a modifier used to stimulate bone tissue regeneration. The obtained unmodified (PURs) and modified with GPCa (PURs-M) PEEURs were studied by various techniques. It was confirmed that urethane prepolymer reacts with GPCa modifier. Further analysis of the obtained PURs and PURs-M by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy revealed the chemical composition typical for PUs by the confirmed presence of urethane bonds. Moreover, the FTIR and Raman spectra indicated that GPCa was incorporated into the main PU chain at least at one-side. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the PURs-M surface was in good agreement with the FTIR and Raman analysis due to the fact that inclusions were observed only at 20% of its surface, which were related to the non-reacted GPCa enclosed in the PUR matrix as filler. Further studies of hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, short term-interactions, and calcification study lead to the final conclusion that the obtained PURs-M may by suitable candidate material for further scaffold fabrication. Scaffolds were prepared by the solvent casting/particulate leaching technique (SC/PL) combined with thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS). Such porous scaffolds had satisfactory pore sizes (36–100 μm) and porosity (77–82%) so as to be considered as suitable templates for bone tissue regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyurethane; bone tissue engineering; calcium glycerolphosphate salt; mechanical properties; contact angle; SEM; EDX; calcification; solvent casting/particulate leaching; TIPS polyurethane; bone tissue engineering; calcium glycerolphosphate salt; mechanical properties; contact angle; SEM; EDX; calcification; solvent casting/particulate leaching; TIPS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kucińska-Lipka, J.; Gubanska, I.; Korchynskyi, O.; Malysheva, K.; Kostrzewa, M.; Włodarczyk, D.; Karczewski, J.; Janik, H. The Influence of Calcium Glycerophosphate (GPCa) Modifier on Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Biological Performance of Polyurethanes Applicable as Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Scaffolds Fabrication. Polymers 2017, 9, 329.

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