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Polymers 2017, 9(8), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9080326

Nanopaper Properties and Adhesive Performance of Microfibrillated Cellulose from Different (Ligno-)Cellulosic Raw Materials

1
Competence Centre for Wood Composites and Wood Chemistry, Wood K Plus, Linz 4040, Austria
2
Department of Materials Science and Process Engineering, BOKU—University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna 1180, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

The self-adhesive potential of nanocellulose from aqueous cellulosic suspensions is of interest with regard to a potential replacement of synthetic adhesives. In order to evaluate the performance of microfibrillated cellulose from different (ligno-)cellulosic raw materials for this purpose, softwood and hardwood powder were fibrillated and compared to sugar beet pulp as a representative non-wood cellulose resource, and conventional microfibrillated cellulose produced from bleached pulp. An alkali pre-treatment of woody and sugar beet raw materials enhanced the degree of fibrillation achieved, same as TEMPO-mediated oxidation of microfibrillated cellulose. Nanopapers produced from fibrillated material showed highly variable density and mechanical performance, demonstrating that properties may be tuned by the choice of raw material. While nanopaper strength was highest for TEMPO-oxidated microfibrillated cellulose, fibrillated untreated sugar beet pulp showed the best adhesive performance. Different microscopic methods (AFM, SEM, light microscopy) examined the interface between wood and fibrillated material, showing particular distinctions to commercial adhesives. It is proposed that fibrillated material suspensions, which achieve bond strength up to 60% of commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive, may provide a viable solution to bio-based adhesives in certain applications where wet-strength is not an issue. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocellulose; sugar beet; wood; nanopaper; bio-adhesive nanocellulose; sugar beet; wood; nanopaper; bio-adhesive
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pinkl, S.; Veigel, S.; Colson, J.; Gindl-Altmutter, W. Nanopaper Properties and Adhesive Performance of Microfibrillated Cellulose from Different (Ligno-)Cellulosic Raw Materials. Polymers 2017, 9, 326.

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