Next Article in Journal
Optimized Synthesis According to One-Step Process of a Biobased Thermoplastic Polyacetal Derived from Isosorbide
Next Article in Special Issue
Silica Treatments: A Fire Retardant Strategy for Hemp Fabric/Epoxy Composites
Previous Article in Journal
Moisture Absorption/Desorption Effects on Flexural Property of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polyester Laminates: Three-Point Bending Test and Coupled Hygro-Mechanical Finite Element Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 293;

Flammability of Cellulose-Based Fibers and the Effect of Structure of Phosphorus Compounds on Their Flame Retardancy

Additives and Chemistry, Advanced Fibers, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen CH-9014, Switzerland
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design, Department of Materials Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas LT-51424, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul Kiekens and Abderrahim Boudenne
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1090 KB, uploaded 11 August 2016]   |  


Cellulose fibers are promoted for use in various textile applications due their sustainable nature. Cellulose-based fibers vary considerably in their mechanical and flammability properties depending on their chemical composition. The chemical composition of a cellulose-based fiber is further dependent on their source (i.e., seed, leaf, cane, fruit, wood, bast, and grass). Being organic in nature, cellulose fibers, and their products thereof, pose considerable fire risk. In this work we have compared the flammability properties of cellulose fibers obtained from two different sources (i.e., cotton and peat). Compared to cotton cellulose textiles, peat-based cellulose textiles burn longer with a prominent afterglow which can be attributed to the presence of lignin in its structure. A series of phosphoramidates were synthesized and applied on both cellulose textiles. From thermogravimetric and pyrolysis combustion flow analysis of the treated cellulose, we were able to relate the flame retardant efficacy of the synthesized phosphorus compounds to their chemical structure. The phosphoramidates with methyl phosphoester groups exhibited higher condensed phase flame retardant effects on both types of cellulose textiles investigated in this study. In addition, the bis-phosphoramidates exhibited higher flame retardant efficacy compared to the mono-phosphoramidates. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose; flame retardant; phosphorus compounds; phosphoramidates; PCFC; TGA cellulose; flame retardant; phosphorus compounds; phosphoramidates; PCFC; TGA

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Salmeia, K.A.; Jovic, M.; Ragaisiene, A.; Rukuiziene, Z.; Milasius, R.; Mikucioniene, D.; Gaan, S. Flammability of Cellulose-Based Fibers and the Effect of Structure of Phosphorus Compounds on Their Flame Retardancy. Polymers 2016, 8, 293.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top