Molecularly imprinting polymers (MIPs) have been extensively applied in chromatography for the separation of chiral drugs. In this review, we mainly summarize recent developments of various MIPs used as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrochromatography (CEC), and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Among them, HPLC has the advantages of straightforward operation and high selectivity. However, the low separation efficiency, due to slow interaction kinetics and heavy peak broadening, is the main challenge for the application of MIPs in HPLC. On the other hand, CEC possesses both the high selectivity of HPLC and the high efficiency of capillary electrophoresis. In CEC, electroosmotic flow is formed across the entire column and reduces the heavy peak broadening observed in HPLC mode. SFC can modify the low interaction kinetics in HPLC when supercritical fluids are utilized as mobile phases. If SFC and MIP-based CSPs can be well combined, better separation performance can be achieved. Particles, monoliths and membrane are typical formats of MIPs. Traditional MIP particles produced by bulk polymerization have been replaced by MIP particles by surface imprinting technology, which are highly consistent in size and shape. Monolithic MIPs are prepared by in situ
method in a column, greatly shortening the pre-preparation time. Some novel materials, such as magnetic nanoparticles, are integrated into the MIPs to enhance the controllability and efficiency of the polymerization. This review will be helpful to guide the preparation, development, and application of MIPs in chromatographic and electrophoretic enantioseparation.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited