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Open AccessArticle

Repair Effect of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Different Contents of Sulfate Group and Molecular Weights on Damaged HK-2 Cells

by 1,2,†, 1,2,†, 1,2,* and 1,2
1
Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
2
Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jianxun Ding
Polymers 2016, 8(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8050188
Received: 2 April 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Polysaccharides)
The structure–activity relationships and repair mechanism of six low-molecular-weight seaweed polysaccharides (SPSs) on oxalate-induced damaged human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were investigated. These SPSs included Laminaria japonica polysaccharide, degraded Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide, degraded Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide, degraded Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide, Eucheuma gelatinae polysaccharide, and degraded Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharide. These SPSs have a narrow difference of molecular weight (from 1968 to 4020 Da) after degradation by controlling H2O2 concentration. The sulfate group (–SO3H) content of the six SPSs was 21.7%, 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, 7.0%, and 5.5%, respectively, and the –COOH contents varied between 1.0% to 1.7%. After degradation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of characteristic –SO3H and –COOH groups of polysaccharides. The repair effect of polysaccharides was determined using cell-viability test by CCK-8 assay and cell-morphology test by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results revealed that these SPSs within 0.1–100 μg/mL did not express cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells, and each polysaccharide had a repair effect on oxalate-induced damaged HK-2 cells. Simultaneously, the content of polysaccharide –SO3H was positively correlated with repair ability. Furthermore, the low-molecular-weight degraded polysaccharides showed better repair activity on damaged HK-2 cells than their undegraded counterpart. Our results can provide reference for inhibiting the formation of kidney stones and for developing original anti-stone polysaccharide drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: seaweed; cell repair activity; polysaccharide degradation; molecular weight; cytotoxicity seaweed; cell repair activity; polysaccharide degradation; molecular weight; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhadja, P.; Tan, C.-Y.; Ouyang, J.-M.; Yu, K. Repair Effect of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Different Contents of Sulfate Group and Molecular Weights on Damaged HK-2 Cells. Polymers 2016, 8, 188.

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