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Review

Cutting-Edge Progress in Stimuli-Responsive Bioadhesives: From Synthesis to Clinical Applications

1
Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
2
Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
3
Structural and Fire Engineering Division, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
4
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreea-Teodora Iacob
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091709
Received: 9 March 2022 / Revised: 31 March 2022 / Accepted: 8 April 2022 / Published: 22 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials)
With the advent of “intelligent” materials, the design of smart bioadhesives responding to chemical, physical, or biological stimuli has been widely developed in biomedical applications to minimize the risk of wounds reopening, chronic pain, and inflammation. Intelligent bioadhesives are free-flowing liquid solutions passing through a phase shift in the physiological environment due to stimuli such as light, temperature, pH, and electric field. They possess great merits, such as ease to access and the ability to sustained release as well as the spatial transfer of a biomolecule with reduced side effects. Tissue engineering, wound healing, drug delivery, regenerative biomedicine, cancer therapy, and other fields have benefited from smart bioadhesives. Recently, many disciplinary attempts have been performed to promote the functionality of smart bioadhesives and discover innovative compositions. However, according to our knowledge, the development of multifunctional bioadhesives for various biomedical applications has not been adequately explored. This review aims to summarize the most recent cutting-edge strategies (years 2015–2021) developed for stimuli-sensitive bioadhesives responding to external stimuli. We first focus on five primary categories of stimuli-responsive bioadhesive systems (pH, thermal, light, electric field, and biomolecules), their properties, and limitations. Following the introduction of principal criteria for smart bioadhesives, their performances are discussed, and certain smart polymeric materials employed in their creation in 2015 are studied. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and future directions regarding smart bioadhesives for biomedical applications are surveyed. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioadhesive; stimuli-responsive materials; wound healing; drug delivery bioadhesive; stimuli-responsive materials; wound healing; drug delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khadem, E.; Kharaziha, M.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H.R.; Das, O.; Berto, F. Cutting-Edge Progress in Stimuli-Responsive Bioadhesives: From Synthesis to Clinical Applications. Polymers 2022, 14, 1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091709

AMA Style

Khadem E, Kharaziha M, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Das O, Berto F. Cutting-Edge Progress in Stimuli-Responsive Bioadhesives: From Synthesis to Clinical Applications. Polymers. 2022; 14(9):1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091709

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khadem, Elham, Mahshid Kharaziha, Hamid R. Bakhsheshi-Rad, Oisik Das, and Filippo Berto. 2022. "Cutting-Edge Progress in Stimuli-Responsive Bioadhesives: From Synthesis to Clinical Applications" Polymers 14, no. 9: 1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091709

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