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Article

Environmental Consequences of Rubber Crumb Application: Soil and Water Pollution

1
Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6, Czech Republic
2
Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Changwoon Nah
Polymers 2022, 14(7), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071416
Received: 17 February 2022 / Revised: 18 March 2022 / Accepted: 28 March 2022 / Published: 30 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Plastic and Rubber Wastes)
End-of-life tires are utilized for various purposes, including sports pitches and playground surfaces. However, several substances used at the manufacture of tires can be a source of concerns related to human health or environment’s adverse effects. In this context, it is necessary to map whether this approach has the desired effect in a broader relation. While the negative effects on human health were investigated thoroughly and legislation is currently being revisited, the impact on aquatic or soil organisms has not been sufficiently studied. The present study deals with the exposure of freshwater and soil organisms to rubber crumb using the analysis of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The obtained results refer to substantial concerns related to freshwater contamination specifically, since the increased concentrations of zinc (7 mg·L−1) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (58 mg·kg−1) inhibit the growth of freshwater organisms, Desmodesmus subspicatus, and Lemna minor in particular. The performed test with soil organisms points to substantial concerns associated with the mortality of earthworms as well. The acquired knowledge can be perceived as a roadmap to a consistent approach in the implementation of the circular economy, which brings with it a number of so far insufficiently described problems. View Full-Text
Keywords: rubber crumb; tire; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; zinc; ecotoxicity; water pollution; soil contamination rubber crumb; tire; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; zinc; ecotoxicity; water pollution; soil contamination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fořt, J.; Kobetičová, K.; Böhm, M.; Podlesný, J.; Jelínková, V.; Vachtlová, M.; Bureš, F.; Černý, R. Environmental Consequences of Rubber Crumb Application: Soil and Water Pollution. Polymers 2022, 14, 1416. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071416

AMA Style

Fořt J, Kobetičová K, Böhm M, Podlesný J, Jelínková V, Vachtlová M, Bureš F, Černý R. Environmental Consequences of Rubber Crumb Application: Soil and Water Pollution. Polymers. 2022; 14(7):1416. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071416

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fořt, Jan, Klára Kobetičová, Martin Böhm, Jan Podlesný, Veronika Jelínková, Martina Vachtlová, Filip Bureš, and Robert Černý. 2022. "Environmental Consequences of Rubber Crumb Application: Soil and Water Pollution" Polymers 14, no. 7: 1416. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071416

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