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Open AccessArticle

Lignin Extraction from Waste Pine Sawdust Using a Biomass Derived Binary Solvent System

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, CIEPQPF, University of Coimbra, Pólo II–R. Silvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
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Department of Chemistry, CQC, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
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Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Centre for Neurosciences and Cell Biology (CNC), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
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MED—Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas Ed. 8, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
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Surface and Colloid Engineering, FSCN, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stanislav Obruca
Polymers 2021, 13(7), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071090
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Polymers from Biomass II)
Lignocellulosic biomass fractionation is typically performed using methods that are somehow harsh to the environment, such as in the case of kraft pulping. In recent years, the development of new sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives has grown significantly. Among the developed systems, bio-based solvents emerge as promising alternatives for biomass processing. Therefore, in the present work, the bio-based and renewable chemicals, levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA), were combined to fractionate lignocellulosic waste (i.e., maritime pine sawdust) and isolate lignin. Different parameters, such as LA:FA ratio, temperature, and extraction time, were optimized to boost the yield and purity of extracted lignin. The LA:FA ratio was found to be crucial regarding the superior lignin extraction from the waste biomass. Moreover, the increase in temperature and extraction time enhances the amount of extracted residue but compromises the lignin purity and reduces its molecular weight. The electron microscopy images revealed that biomass samples suffer significant structural and morphological changes, which further suggests the suitability of the newly developed bio-fractionation process. The same was concluded by the FTIR analysis, in which no remaining lignin was detected in the cellulose-rich fraction. Overall, the novel combination of bio-sourced FA and LA has shown to be a very promising system for lignin extraction with high purity from biomass waste, thus contributing to extend the opportunities of lignin manipulation and valorization into novel added-value biomaterials. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass fractionation; formic acid; levulinic acid; lignin; maritime pine biomass fractionation; formic acid; levulinic acid; lignin; maritime pine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Magalhães, S.; Filipe, A.; Melro, E.; Fernandes, C.; Vitorino, C.; Alves, L.; Romano, A.; Rasteiro, M.G.; Medronho, B. Lignin Extraction from Waste Pine Sawdust Using a Biomass Derived Binary Solvent System. Polymers 2021, 13, 1090. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071090

AMA Style

Magalhães S, Filipe A, Melro E, Fernandes C, Vitorino C, Alves L, Romano A, Rasteiro MG, Medronho B. Lignin Extraction from Waste Pine Sawdust Using a Biomass Derived Binary Solvent System. Polymers. 2021; 13(7):1090. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071090

Chicago/Turabian Style

Magalhães, Solange; Filipe, Alexandra; Melro, Elodie; Fernandes, Catarina; Vitorino, Carla; Alves, Luís; Romano, Anabela; Rasteiro, Maria G.; Medronho, Bruno. 2021. "Lignin Extraction from Waste Pine Sawdust Using a Biomass Derived Binary Solvent System" Polymers 13, no. 7: 1090. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071090

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