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Article

Plumbagin-Loaded Glycerosome Gel as Topical Delivery System for Skin Cancer Therapy

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Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Center of Excellence for Drug Research & Pharmaceutical Industries, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi 110025, India
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Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India
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Vaccines and Immunotherapy Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
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Faculty of Pharmacy, DIT University, Dehradun 248009, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christian Wiraja
Polymers 2021, 13(6), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13060923
Received: 27 February 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Carrier Systems Enabling Transdermal Drug Delivery)
Plumbagin (PLM) is a phytochemical which has shown cytotoxicity against of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, the clinical application of PLM has been hindered due to poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to develop, optimize and evaluate PLM-loaded glycerosome (GM) gel and compare with conventional liposome (CL) for therapeutic efficacy against skin cancer. The GM formulations were optimized by employing design expert software by 3-level 3-factor design. The prepared GMs were characterized in vitro for vesicle size, size distribution, zeta potential, vesicle deformability, drug release, skin permeation, retention, texture, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. The optimized formulation showed a vesicle size of 119.20 ± 15.67 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.145 ± 0.02, the zeta potential of −27 ± 5.12 mV and entrapment efficiency of 76.42 ± 9.98%. The optimized PLM-loaded GM formulation was transformed into a pre-formed gel which was prepared using Carbopol 934 polymer. The drug diffusion fluxes of CL gel and GM-loaded gel were 23.31 ± 6.0 and 79.43 ± 12.43 µg/cm2/h, respectively. The result of texture analysis revealed the adequate hardness, cohesiveness, consistency, and viscosity of the developed GM-loaded gel compared to CL gel. The confocal images showed that glycerosomal gel has deeper skin layer penetration as compared to the control solution. GM-loaded gel treated rat skin showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher drug accumulation in the dermis, higher cytotoxicity and higher antioxidant activity as compared to CL gel and PLM suspension. Thus, findings revealed that novel GM-loaded gel could be potential carriers for therapeutic intervention in skin cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Box–Behnken design; confocal microscopy; liposome; gel; plumbagin; skin cancer Box–Behnken design; confocal microscopy; liposome; gel; plumbagin; skin cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Md, S.; Alhakamy, N.A.; Aldawsari, H.M.; Husain, M.; Khan, N.; Alfaleh, M.A.; Asfour, H.Z.; Riadi, Y.; Bilgrami, A.L.; Akhter, M.H. Plumbagin-Loaded Glycerosome Gel as Topical Delivery System for Skin Cancer Therapy. Polymers 2021, 13, 923. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13060923

AMA Style

Md S, Alhakamy NA, Aldawsari HM, Husain M, Khan N, Alfaleh MA, Asfour HZ, Riadi Y, Bilgrami AL, Akhter MH. Plumbagin-Loaded Glycerosome Gel as Topical Delivery System for Skin Cancer Therapy. Polymers. 2021; 13(6):923. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13060923

Chicago/Turabian Style

Md, Shadab, Nabil A. Alhakamy, Hibah M. Aldawsari, Mohammad Husain, Nazia Khan, Mohamed A. Alfaleh, Hani Z. Asfour, Yassine Riadi, Anwar L. Bilgrami, and Md Habban Akhter. 2021. "Plumbagin-Loaded Glycerosome Gel as Topical Delivery System for Skin Cancer Therapy" Polymers 13, no. 6: 923. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13060923

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