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Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Polymer by Adding Ceramic Nanoparticles for Aeronautical Structural Applications

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Industrial Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jazan University, Jazan P.O. Box 114, Saudi Arabia
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Mechanical Production Department, Faculty of Technology Education, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef P.O. Box 62521, Egypt
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Department of Mechanical Design and Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig P.O. Box 44519, Egypt
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Manufacturing Engineering and Production Technology Department, Modern Academy for Engineering and Technology, Cairo P.O. Box 11571, Egypt
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: María del Carmen Serna Moreno, Sergio Horta Muñoz, Pablo Antonio Morales-Rodríguez, David Ruiz Gracia and Marcin Masłowski
Polymers 2021, 13(23), 4116; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13234116
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 1 November 2021 / Accepted: 4 November 2021 / Published: 26 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Response of Fibre-Reinforced Polymers)
The multiscale hybridization of ceramic nanoparticles incorporated into polymer matrices reinforced with hybrid fibers offers a new opportunity to develop high-performance, multifunctional composites, especially for applications in aeronautical structures. In this study, two different kinds of hybrid fibers were selected, woven carbon and glass fiber, while two different ceramic nanoparticles, alumina (Al2O3) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), were chosen to incorporate into a polymer matrix (epoxy resin). To obtain good dispersion of additive nanoparticles within the resin matrix, the ultrasonication technique was implemented. The microstructure, XRD patterns, hardness, and tensile properties of the fabricated composites were investigated here. Microstructural characterization demonstrated a good dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles of Al2O3 and GNPs in the fabricated composites. The addition of GNPs/Al2O3 nanoparticles as additive reinforcements to the fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) induced a significant increase in the hardness and tensile strength. Generally, the FRPs with 3 wt.% nano-Al2O3 enhanced composites exhibit higher tensile strength as compared with all other sets of composites. Particularly, the tensile strength was improved from 133 MPa in the unreinforced specimen to 230 MPa in the reinforced specimen with 3 wt.% Al2O3. This can be attributed to the better distribution of nanoparticles in the resin polymer, which, in turn, induces proper stress transfer from the matrix to the fiber phase. The hybrid mode mechanism depends on the interaction among the mechanical properties of fiber, the physical and chemical evolution of resin, the bonding properties of the fiber/resin interface, and the service environment. Therefore, the hybrid mode of woven carbon and glass fibers at a volume fraction of 64% with additive nanoparticles of GNPs/Al2O3 within the resin was appropriate to produce aeronautical structures with extraordinary properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: aeronautical structural applications; hybrid fibers reinforced polymer; composites; mechanical response; structural behavior aeronautical structural applications; hybrid fibers reinforced polymer; composites; mechanical response; structural behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bafakeeh, O.T.; Shewakh, W.M.; Abu-Oqail, A.; Abd-Elaziem, W.; Abdel Ghafaar, M.; Abu-Okail, M. Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Polymer by Adding Ceramic Nanoparticles for Aeronautical Structural Applications. Polymers 2021, 13, 4116. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13234116

AMA Style

Bafakeeh OT, Shewakh WM, Abu-Oqail A, Abd-Elaziem W, Abdel Ghafaar M, Abu-Okail M. Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Polymer by Adding Ceramic Nanoparticles for Aeronautical Structural Applications. Polymers. 2021; 13(23):4116. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13234116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bafakeeh, Omar T., Walid M. Shewakh, Ahmed Abu-Oqail, Walaa Abd-Elaziem, Metwally Abdel Ghafaar, and Mohamed Abu-Okail. 2021. "Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Polymer by Adding Ceramic Nanoparticles for Aeronautical Structural Applications" Polymers 13, no. 23: 4116. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13234116

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