2. Experimental Approach
2.2. Preparation and Manufacturing
2.3. Scanning Electron Microscopy
2.4. Raman Spectroscopy
2.5. Thermal Strain Measurement
3.2. Raman Spectroscopy
3.3. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
- Ferrocene was used as the catalyst for the CVD growth of MWCNTs and some catalysts particles might be entrapped within the MWCNTs. As a post-growth purification process was not included in this study, the weight of the catalyst might have been inadvertently included in the weight measurement of MWCNTs. Therefore, the actual weight percentages of the MWCNTs used in the specimens were most likely less than the measured weight percentages. The contribution of catalyst to the CTE of polymer is expected to be negligible .
- There was a deviation in the density of MWCNTs used in the calculation to obtain volume fraction, as there was no effective method to measure the density of MWCNTs. The density of MWCNTs is related to the dimension of CNTs and the quantity of the walls in CNTs . The diameter of the MWCNTs synthesised in the present study was between 20 and 100 nm. The density of the MWCNTs used in the present study might be underestimated, as the density of MWCNTs varies from 1.5 gm/cm to 2.5 gm/cm .
- If the MWCNTs dispersion is unstable, re-agglomeration starts immediately after the dispersion process is stopped. CNT agglomeration induces a negative influence on the performance of polymers . Agglomerates introduce inhomogeneities to the specimen that may lead to localised stress concentration under thermal load, resulting in the formation of initiation sites for failure and acceleration of breakage.
- The defects (porosity, void etc.) in the adhesive part of the specimens may cause poor local bonding between the metal substrate and adhesive, which in turn can result in different thermal expansions of the specimens. In the present study such defects were identified; see Figure 9. Insufficient degassing of the uncured epoxy causes formation of porosity and voids.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Specimen a||epoxy+Al+1.00 % MWCNTs||105 mm × 30 mm × 10 mm|
|Specimen b||epoxy+Al+2.68 % MWCNTs||105 mm × 30 mm × 10 mm|
|Specimen c||epoxy+1.00% MWCNTs||105 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm|
|Specimen d||epoxy+2.68% MWCNTs||105 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm|
|Specimen e||Al only||105 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm|
|Length of thermal expansion (mm)||0.127||0.133||0.257||0.218||0.132|
|Interval of temperature (°C)||90||90||90||90||90|
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