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Review

Recent Advances in Antioxidant Polymers: From Sustainable and Natural Monomers to Synthesis and Applications

1
Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
2
Smart Materials, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 16163 Genova, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Miguel Ferri
Polymers 2021, 13(15), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152465
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biocompatible and Biodegradable Polymers)
Advances in technology have led to the production of sustainable antioxidants and natural monomers for food packaging and targeted drug delivery applications. Of particular importance is the synthesis of lignin polymers, and graft polymers, dopamine, and polydopamine, inulin, quercetin, limonene, and vitamins, due to their free radical scavenging ability, chemical potency, ideal functional groups for polymerization, abundance in the natural environment, ease of production, and activation of biological mechanisms such as the inhibition of the cellular activation of various signaling pathways, including NF-κB and MAPK. The radical oxygen species are responsible for oxidative damage and increased susceptibility to cancer, cardiovascular, degenerative musculoskeletal, and neurodegenerative conditions and diabetes; such biological mechanisms are inhibited by both synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants. The orientation of macromolecules in the presence of the plasticizing agent increases the suitability of quercetin in food packaging, while the commercial viability of terpenes in the replacement of existing non-renewable polymers is reinforced by the recyclability of the precursors (thyme, cannabis, and lemon, orange, mandarin) and marginal ecological effect and antioxidant properties. Emerging antioxidant nanoparticle polymers have a broad range of applications in tumor-targeted drug delivery, food fortification, biodegradation of synthetic polymers, and antimicrobial treatment and corrosion inhibition. The aim of the review is to present state-of-the-art polymers with intrinsic antioxidant properties, including synthesis scavenging activity, potential applications, and future directions. This review is distinct from other works given that it integrates different advances in antioxidant polymer synthesis and applications such as inulin, quercetin polymers, their conjugates, antioxidant-graft-polysaccharides, and polymerization vitamins and essential oils. One of the most comprehensive reviews of antioxidant polymers was published by Cirillo and Iemma in 2012. Since then, significant progress has been made in improving the synthesis, techniques, properties, and applications. The review builds upon existing research by presenting new findings that were excluded from previous reviews. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; antioxidant polymers; lignin polymers; graft polymers; dopamine; polydopamine; inulin; quercetin; limonene; vitamins antioxidant; antioxidant polymers; lignin polymers; graft polymers; dopamine; polydopamine; inulin; quercetin; limonene; vitamins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maraveas, C.; Bayer, I.S.; Bartzanas, T. Recent Advances in Antioxidant Polymers: From Sustainable and Natural Monomers to Synthesis and Applications. Polymers 2021, 13, 2465. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152465

AMA Style

Maraveas C, Bayer IS, Bartzanas T. Recent Advances in Antioxidant Polymers: From Sustainable and Natural Monomers to Synthesis and Applications. Polymers. 2021; 13(15):2465. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152465

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maraveas, Chrysanthos, Ilker S. Bayer, and Thomas Bartzanas. 2021. "Recent Advances in Antioxidant Polymers: From Sustainable and Natural Monomers to Synthesis and Applications" Polymers 13, no. 15: 2465. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152465

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