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Article

A Study on Circular Economy Material Using Fish Scales as a Natural Flame Retardant and the Properties of Its Composite Materials

1
Department of Ammunition Engineering and Explosion Technology, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, China
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 41170, Taiwan
3
Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yung-Sheng Yen
Polymers 2021, 13(15), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152446
Received: 7 July 2021 / Revised: 23 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 25 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymer Composites)
Fish scales (FSs) are fishery wastes that can cause environmental pollution. This study aimed to solve this environmental problem. FSs were used as a flame retardant for polymer materials, making them valuable. Fish scales were combined with a commercial flame retardant, ammonium polyphosphate (APP), through synergistic effects to reduce the amount of commercial flame retardant. The use of FSs conforms to the concept of a circular economy and lowers costs by reducing the consumption of APP. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT), pyrolysis kinetics, limiting oxygen index (LOI), the Underwriters Laboratories 94 (UL94) flammability test, scanning election microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to determine the thermal properties, flame retardant properties, flame retardant mechanism, char morphology, and composition of the composites. The TGA results indicated that the addition of 40% flame retardant raised the char residue from 16.45 wt.% (pure EP) to 36.07 wt.%; IPDT from 685.6 °C (pure EP) to 1143.1°C; LOI from 21% (pure EP) to 30%; and UL94 classification from fail (pure EP) to V-0. These results suggest an increase in char residue, which indicates better protection of the polymer matrix material. The improvements in IPDT, LOI, and UL94 classification, which indicate greater thermal stability, lower flammability (from flammable to fireproof), and higher flammability rating (from fail to V-0), respectively, suggest that the composite material has favorable thermal properties and is less inflammable. View Full-Text
Keywords: fishery waste; epoxy; fish scale; ammonium polyphosphate; flame retardant fishery waste; epoxy; fish scale; ammonium polyphosphate; flame retardant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, S.-H.; Shen, M.-Y.; Yang, C.-Y.; Chiang, C.-L. A Study on Circular Economy Material Using Fish Scales as a Natural Flame Retardant and the Properties of Its Composite Materials. Polymers 2021, 13, 2446. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152446

AMA Style

Liu S-H, Shen M-Y, Yang C-Y, Chiang C-L. A Study on Circular Economy Material Using Fish Scales as a Natural Flame Retardant and the Properties of Its Composite Materials. Polymers. 2021; 13(15):2446. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152446

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Shang-Hao, Ming-Yuan Shen, Cheng-You Yang, and Chin-Lung Chiang. 2021. "A Study on Circular Economy Material Using Fish Scales as a Natural Flame Retardant and the Properties of Its Composite Materials" Polymers 13, no. 15: 2446. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152446

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