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Open AccessArticle

Shape Memory Polymer Foam with Programmable Apertures

1
Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP, Geiselbergstr. 69, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
2
Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP, Fraunhoferstraße 10, 83626 Valley, Germany
3
Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Straße 7, 76327 Pfinztal, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12091914
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 14 August 2020 / Accepted: 19 August 2020 / Published: 25 August 2020
In this work, a novel type of polyester urethane urea (PEUU) foam is introduced. The foam was produced by reactive foaming using a mixture of poly(1,10–decamethylene adipate) diol and poly(1,4–butylene adipate) diol, 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, 1,4–butanediol, diethanolamine and water as blowing agent. As determined by differential scanning calorimetry, the melting of the ester-based phases occurred at temperatures in between 25 °C and 61 °C, while the crystallization transition spread from 48 °C to 20 °C. The mechanical properties of the foam were simulated with the hyperplastic models Neo-Hookean and Ogden, whereby the latter showed a better agreement with the experimental data as evidenced by a Pearson correlation coefficient R² above 0.99. Once thermomechanically treated, the foam exhibited a maximum actuation of 13.7% in heating-cooling cycles under a constant external load. In turn, thermal cycling under load-free conditions resulted in an actuation of more than 10%. Good thermal insulation properties were demonstrated by thermal conductivities of 0.039 W·(m·K)−1 in the pristine state and 0.052 W·(m·K)−1 in a state after compression by 50%, respectively. Finally, three demonstrators were developed, which closed an aperture or opened it again simply by changing the temperature. The self-sufficient material behavior is particularly promising in the construction industry, where programmable air slots offer the prospect of a dynamic insulation system for an adaptive building envelope. View Full-Text
Keywords: foam; programmable material; polyester urethane urea; actuation; construction; air slot foam; programmable material; polyester urethane urea; actuation; construction; air slot
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walter, M.; Friess, F.; Krus, M.; Zolanvari, S.M.H.; Grün, G.; Kröber, H.; Pretsch, T. Shape Memory Polymer Foam with Programmable Apertures. Polymers 2020, 12, 1914.

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