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Open AccessArticle

Chitosan Grafted with Biobased 5-Hydroxymethyl-Furfural as Adsorbent for Copper and Cadmium Ions Removal

1
Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, GR-654 04 Kavala, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(5), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12051173
Received: 18 April 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources)
This work investigates the application of 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) as a grafting agent to chitosan (CS). The material produced was further modified by cross-linking. Three different derivatives were tested with molecular ratios CS/HMF of 1:1 (CS-HMF1), 2:1 (CS-HMF2) and 10:1 mol/mol (CS-HMF3)) to remove Cu2+ and Cd2+ from aqueous solutions. CS-HMF derivatives were characterized both before, and after, metal ions adsorption by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The CS-HMF derivatives were tested at pH = 5 and showed higher adsorption capacity with the increase of temperature. Also, the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir (best fitting) and Freundlich model, while the kinetic data to pseudo-first (best fitting) and pseudo-second order equations. The Langmuir model fitted better (higher R2) the equilibrium data than the Freundlich equation. By increasing the HMF grafting from 130% (CS-HMF1) to 310% (CS-HMF3), an increase of 24% (26 m/g) was observed for Cu2+ adsorption and 19% (20 mg/g) for Cd2+. By increasing from T = 25 to 65 °C, an increase of the adsorption capacity (metal uptake) was observed. Ten reuse cycles were successfully carried out without significant loss of adsorption ability. The reuse potential was higher of Cd2+, but more stable desorption reuse ability during all cycles for Cu2+. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural; derivatives; biobased polymers; adsorption; copper; cadmium; wastewaters chitosan; 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural; derivatives; biobased polymers; adsorption; copper; cadmium; wastewaters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mone, M.; Lambropoulou, D.A.; Bikiaris, D.N.; Kyzas, G. Chitosan Grafted with Biobased 5-Hydroxymethyl-Furfural as Adsorbent for Copper and Cadmium Ions Removal. Polymers 2020, 12, 1173.

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