With the rapid development of social economy, problems such as volatile organic compound (VOC) pollution and the excessive consumption of global petroleum resources have become increasingly prominent. People are beginning to realize that these problems not only affect the ecological environment, but also hinder the development of the organic polymer material industry based on raw fossil materials. Therefore, the modification and application of bio-based materials are of theoretical and practical significance. In this study, a series of vegetable oil-based acrylate prepolymers were synthesized by one-step acrylation using palm oil, olive oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, canola oil, and grapeseed oil as raw materials, and the effect of different double bond contents on the product structure and grafting rate was investigated. Furthermore, the as-prepared vegetable oil-based acrylate prepolymers, polyurethane acrylate (PUA-2665), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), and photoinitiator (PI-1173) were mixed thoroughly to prepare ultraviolet (UV)-curable films. The effect of different grafting numbers on the properties of these films was investigated. The results showed that as the degree of unsaturation increased, the acrylate grafting number and the cross-linking density increased, although the acrylation (grafting reaction) rate decreased. The reason was mainly because increasing the double bond content could accelerate the reaction rate, while the grafted acrylic groups had a steric hindrance effect to prevent the adjacent double bonds from participating in the reaction. Furthermore, the increase in grafting number brought about the increase in the structural functionality of prepolymers and the cross-linking density of cured films, which led to the enhancement in the thermal (glass transition temperature) and mechanical (tensile strength, Young’s modulus) properties of the cured films.
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