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Open AccessArticle

Curing Kinetics and Thermal Stability of Epoxy Composites Containing Newly Obtained Nano-Scale Aluminum Hypophosphite (AlPO2)

1
School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563, Iran
2
Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, F-57000 Metz, France
3
Laboratory of Polymeric & Composite Materials, Materia Nova Research Center, Place du Parc 23, B-7000 Mons, Belgium
4
Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 16765-654, Iran
5
Laboratory of Polymeric and Composite Materials (LPCM), Center of Innovation and Research in Materials & Polymers (CIRMAP), Health and Materials Research Institutes, University of Mons, Place du Parc, 23, B-7000 Mons, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030644
Received: 1 February 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epoxy Resins and Composites)
For the first time, nano-scale aluminum hypophosphite (AlPO2) was simply obtained in a two-step milling process and applied in preparation of epoxy nanocomposites varying concentration (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.% based on resin weight). Studying the cure kinetics and thermal stability of these nanocomposites would pave the way toward the design of high-performance nanocomposites for special applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) revealed AlPO2 particles having domains less than 60 nm with high potential for agglomeration. Excellent (at heating rate of 5 °C/min) and Good (at heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 °C/min) cure states were detected for nanocomposites under nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). While the dimensionless curing temperature interval (ΔT*) was almost equal for epoxy/AlPO2 nanocomposites, dimensionless heat release (ΔH*) changed by densification of polymeric network. Quantitative cure analysis based on isoconversional Friedman and Kissinger methods gave rise to the kinetic parameters such as activation energy and the order of reaction as well as frequency factor. Variation of glass transition temperature (Tg) was monitored to explain the molecular interaction in the system, where Tg increased from 73.2 °C for neat epoxy to just 79.5 °C for the system containing 0.1 wt.% AlPO2. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that nanocomposites were thermally stable. View Full-Text
Keywords: cure index; epoxy nanocomposite; nano-scale aluminum hypophosphite; cure kinetics; thermosetting resins cure index; epoxy nanocomposite; nano-scale aluminum hypophosphite; cure kinetics; thermosetting resins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tikhani, F.; Moghari, S.; Jouyandeh, M.; Laoutid, F.; Vahabi, H.; Saeb, M.R.; Dubois, P. Curing Kinetics and Thermal Stability of Epoxy Composites Containing Newly Obtained Nano-Scale Aluminum Hypophosphite (AlPO2). Polymers 2020, 12, 644.

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