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Open AccessArticle

Damage Evolution and Fracture Events Sequence Analysis of Core-Shell Nanoparticle Modified Bone Cements by Acoustic Emission Technique

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Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Calkiní en el Estado de Campeche, Avenida Ah Canul, s/n por Carretera Federal, C.P. 24900, Calkiní, Campeche, Mexico
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan
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Departamento de Física Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Mérida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso km 6, Cordemex, C.P. 97310, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico
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Unidad de Materiales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Calle 43 No. 130 x 32 y 34, Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97205, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010208
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
In this research, damage in bone cements that were prepared with core-shell nanoparticles was monitored during four-point bending tests through an analysis of acoustic emission (AE) signals. The core-shell structure consisted of poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) as rubbery core and methyl methacrylate/styrene copolymer (P(MMA-co-St)) as a glassy shell. Furthermore, different core-shell ratios 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, and 50/50 were prepared and incorporated into the solid phase of the bone cement formulation at 5, 10, and 15 wt %, respectively. The incorporation of a rubbery phase into the bone cement formulation decreased the bending strength and bending modulus. The AE technique revealed that the nanoparticles play an important role on the fracture mechanism of the bone cement, since a higher amount of AE signals (higher amplitude and energy) were obtained from bone cements that were prepared with the nanoparticles in comparison with those without nanoparticles (the reference bone cement). The SEM examination of the fracture surfaces revealed that all of the bone cement formulations exhibited stress whitening, which arises from the development of crazes before the crack propagation. Finally, the use of the AE technique and the fracture surface analysis by SEM enabled insight into the fracture mechanisms that are presented during four-point bending test of the bone cement containing nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: bending test; bone cement; acoustic emission; core-shell nanoparticles bending test; bone cement; acoustic emission; core-shell nanoparticles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pacheco-Salazar, O.; Wakayama, S.; Can-Herrera, L.; Dzul-Cervantes, M.; Ríos-Soberanis, C.; Cervantes-Uc, J. Damage Evolution and Fracture Events Sequence Analysis of Core-Shell Nanoparticle Modified Bone Cements by Acoustic Emission Technique. Polymers 2020, 12, 208.

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