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Interlaminar Toughening of Epoxy Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminates: Soluble Versus Non-Soluble Veils

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, V.le A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
CNR-ICPB, Via Paolo Gaifami 17, 95125 Catania, Italy
Bristol Composites Institute (ACCIS), University of Bristol, University Walk, BS8 1TR Bristol, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1029;
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Matrix Composites for Advanced Applications)
PDF [9546 KB, uploaded 11 June 2019]


This work describes the evaluation of different interlaminar veils to improve the toughening of epoxy/carbon fiber composites manufactured by resin infusion. Three commercial veils have been used in the study: two electro spun thermoplastic nanofiber (Xantulayr® from Revolution Fibres) with different areal weight, and one micro carbon fibers veil (Optiveil® from TFP). Two laboratory made veils were also manufactured by electrospinning commercial polyethersulfone (PES) tougheners (Virantage by Solvay). The veils were selected to be either soluble or non-soluble in the epoxy resin matrix during curing. The solubility was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis testing on the cured laminates. The fracture energy was evaluated by double cantilever bending (DCB) testing under Mode I loading. The insoluble thermoplastic nanofibers showed the highest toughening efficiency, followed by the soluble nanofiber veils. The carbon fiber based veil showed no toughness improvement. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrospinning; epoxy; composites; interlaminar toughening electrospinning; epoxy; composites; interlaminar toughening

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ognibene, G.; Latteri, A.; Mannino, S.; Saitta, L.; Recca, G.; Scarpa, F.; Cicala, G. Interlaminar Toughening of Epoxy Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminates: Soluble Versus Non-Soluble Veils. Polymers 2019, 11, 1029.

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