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Polymers 2018, 10(9), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10091021

Preparation and Evaluation of Metronidazole-Loaded Pectin Films for Potentially Targeting a Microbial Infection Associated with Periodontal Disease

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Department of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
3
Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
4
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-based Systems for Controlled Release and Targeting of Drugs)
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to develop the metronidazole loaded high and low methoxyl pectin films (HM-G-MZ and LM-G-MZ) for the treatment of periodontal disease. The films were prepared by pectin 3% w/v, glycerin 40% w/v, and metronidazole 5% w/v. The developed films were characterized by scanning electron microscope and evaluated for thickness, weight variation, and elasticity. The developed films showing optimal mechanical properties were selected to evaluate radial swelling properties, in vitro release of metronidazole and the antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that LM-MZ and HM-G-MZ films were colorless and yellowish color, respectively, with the film thickness around 0.36–0.38 mm. Furthermore, both films exhibited good elasticity with low puncture strength (1.63 ± 0.37 and 0.84 ± 0.03 N/mm2, respectively) and also showed slight increase in radial swelling, so that they could be easily inserted and fitted into the periodontal pocket during a clinical use. However, HM-G-MZ showed a decrease in radial swelling after 1 h due to the film erosion. The in vitro release study of LM-G-MZ showed a burst release that was initially followed by a slow release rate profile, capable to maintain the therapeutic level in periodontal pocket for seven days, whereas HM-G-MZ showed an immediate release profile. The cumulative percentage of metronidazole release from HM-G-MZ was less than LM-G-MZ during the first 5 min as metronidazole was in a crystalline form inside HM-G-MZ film. For antimicrobial activity test, both films showed the inhibitory effect against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, and there was no difference in the inhibition zone between LM-G-MZ and HM-G-MZ. The present study showed, for the first time, that low methoxyl pectin film containing glycerin and metronidazole could be potentially considered as a promising clinical tool for the drug delivery via intra-periodontal pocket to target an oral disease that is associated with polymicrobial infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: pectin; film; metronidazole; antimicrobial activity; periodontal disease pectin; film; metronidazole; antimicrobial activity; periodontal disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Junmahasathien, T.; Panraksa, P.; Protiarn, P.; Hormdee, D.; Noisombut, R.; Kantrong, N.; Jantrawut, P. Preparation and Evaluation of Metronidazole-Loaded Pectin Films for Potentially Targeting a Microbial Infection Associated with Periodontal Disease. Polymers 2018, 10, 1021.

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