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Polymers 2018, 10(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030267

Chitosan and Its Derivatives for Application in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems

1
Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AD, UK
2
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
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Abstract

Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are desirable as they can increase the residence time of drugs at the site of absorption/action, provide sustained drug release and minimize the degradation of drugs in various body sites. Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide that exhibits mucoadhesive properties and it has been widely used in the design of mucoadhesive dosage forms. However, its limited mucoadhesive strength and limited water-solubility at neutral and basic pHs are considered as two major drawbacks of its use. Chemical modification of chitosan has been exploited to tackle these two issues. In this review, we highlight the up-to-date studies involving the synthetic approaches and description of mucoadhesive properties of chitosan and chitosan derivatives. These derivatives include trimethyl chitosan, carboxymethyl chitosan, thiolated chitosan, chitosan-enzyme inhibitors, chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (chitosan-EDTA), half-acetylated chitosan, acrylated chitosan, glycol chitosan, chitosan-catechol, methyl pyrrolidinone-chitosan, cyclodextrin-chitosan and oleoyl-quaternised chitosan. We have particularly focused on the effect of chemical derivatization on the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan. Additionally, other important properties including water-solubility, stability, controlled release, permeation enhancing effect, and in vivo performance are also described. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan derivatives; mucosal drug delivery; mucoadhesion; trimethyl chitosan; thiolated chitosan; chitosan-catechol; acrylated chitosan chitosan derivatives; mucosal drug delivery; mucoadhesion; trimethyl chitosan; thiolated chitosan; chitosan-catechol; acrylated chitosan
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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M. Ways, T.M.; Lau, W.M.; Khutoryanskiy, V.V. Chitosan and Its Derivatives for Application in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems. Polymers 2018, 10, 267.

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