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Open AccessArticle

Single Local Injection of Epigallocatechin Gallate-Modified Gelatin Attenuates Bone Resorption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Mice

1
Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi University, 2-1-3 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8501, Japan
2
Institute of Dental Research, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuhahanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
3
Department of Biobased Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2018, 10(12), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10121384
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Conjugated Polymers)
Osteoclastic bone resorption enables orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in orthodontic treatment. Previously, we demonstrated that local epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) injection successfully slowed the rate of OTM; however, repeat injections were required. In the present study, we produced a liquid form of EGCG-modified gelatin (EGCG-GL) and examined the properties of EGCG-GL with respect to prolonging EGCG release, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation, osteoclastogenesis inhibition, bone destruction, and OTM. We found EGCG-GL both prolonged the release of EGCG and induced the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes, such as heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7. EGCG-GL attenuated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro. An animal model of bone destruction, induced by repeat Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injections into the calvaria of male BALB/c mice, revealed that a single injection of EGCG-GL on day-1 could successfully inhibit LPS-mediated bone destruction. Additionally, experimental OTM of maxillary first molars in male mice was attenuated by a single EGCG-GL injection on day-1. In conclusion, EGCG-GL prolongs the release of EGCG and inhibits osteoclastogenesis via the attenuation of intracellular ROS signaling through the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicate EGCG-GL would be a beneficial therapeutic approach both in destructive bone disease and in controlling alveolar bone metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoclast; RANKL; ROS; antioxidant enzyme; Nrf2; gelatin; epigallocatechin gallate osteoclast; RANKL; ROS; antioxidant enzyme; Nrf2; gelatin; epigallocatechin gallate
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Katsumata, Y.; Kanzaki, H.; Honda, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Itohiya, K.; Fukaya, S.; Miyamoto, Y.; Narimiya, T.; Wada, S.; Nakamura, Y. Single Local Injection of Epigallocatechin Gallate-Modified Gelatin Attenuates Bone Resorption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Mice. Polymers 2018, 10, 1384.

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