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Open AccessArticle

Flame Retardancy of Low-Viscosity Epoxy Resins and Their Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites via a Combined Solid and Gas Phase Mechanism

1
Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Hungary
2
Department of Organic Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2018, 10(10), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10101081
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials)
Low viscosity, potentially renewable aliphatic epoxy resins, appropriate for processing with injection techniques were flame retarded with the use of resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), acting predominantly in the gas phase, ammonium polyphosphate (APP), acting in the solid phase, and their combination. Samples of gradually increasing phosphorus (P) content (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%) and mixed formulations with 2% P from APP and 2% P from RDP were prepared. The fire retardancy of matrix and carbon fibre reinforced samples was examined by limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 tests, and mass loss calorimetry. The thermal stability of the matrices was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, whereas the effect of flame retardants (FRs) on the crosslinking process and glass transition temperature was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry in matrices and by dynamic mechanical analysis in composites. According to the results, although the trifunctional glycerol -based (GER) and the tetrafunctional pentaerythritol-based (PER) epoxy resins have a similar initial LOI and horizontal burning rate, GER has an approximately 1.5 times higher peak of heat release rate (pHRR) than PER. At least 4% P content is necessary to reach a reasonable improvement in fire performance in these resin transfer molding (RTM)-compatible systems and with the same FR-content PER reaches better fire performance. RDP has an early gas phase effect at the beginning of degradation, while later on the solid phase action of APP prevails, although in composites hindered by the reinforcing carbon fibres. In PER composites, the combination of APP and RDP had a synergistic effect, leading to a pHRR of 218 kW/m2 and total heat release of 18.2 MJ/m2. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus-containing additive flame retardants; combined solid and gas phase mechanism; low viscosity epoxy resins; carbon fibre reinforced composites phosphorus-containing additive flame retardants; combined solid and gas phase mechanism; low viscosity epoxy resins; carbon fibre reinforced composites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pomázi, Á.; Szolnoki, B.; Toldy, A. Flame Retardancy of Low-Viscosity Epoxy Resins and Their Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites via a Combined Solid and Gas Phase Mechanism. Polymers 2018, 10, 1081.

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