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Recrystallization and Micronization of p-Toluenesulfonamide Using the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS) Process

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 86222, Taiwan
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan 86330, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(9), 449;
Received: 16 July 2019 / Revised: 17 August 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2019 / Published: 29 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Crystalline Materials)
This study is focused on the micronization of p-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) using the rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) process. Taguchi’s experimental design method was applied to determine the optimum operating conditions. L9(34) orthogonal array with four control factors and three levels of each control factor was used to design nine experimental conditions. Four control factors were selected, including extraction temperature, extraction pressure, pre-expansion temperature, and post-expansion temperature. The particle size and morphology of the prepared samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed to compare the differences between the raw and micronized p-TSA particles. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the extraction temperature was the most significant factor for the micronization of p-TSA in the RESS process, and the optimal operating conditions were at an extraction temperature of 50 °C, an extraction pressure of 220 MPa, a pre-expansion temperature of 220 °C, and a post-expansion temperature of 30 °C. The p-TSA particles were micronized from the original average size of 294.8 μm to the smallest average size of 1.1 μm at the optimal RESS process conditions. Furthermore, the physicochemical characteristics of p-TSA did not differ significantly before and after recrystallization. View Full-Text
Keywords: p-toluenesulfonamide; RESS process; recrystallization; micronization p-toluenesulfonamide; RESS process; recrystallization; micronization
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Yang, T.-M.; Su, C.-S.; Li, J.-S.; Lu, K.-T.; Yeh, T.-F. Recrystallization and Micronization of p-Toluenesulfonamide Using the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS) Process. Crystals 2019, 9, 449.

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