Next Article in Journal
Growth of Catalyst-Free Hexagonal Pyramid-Like InN Nanocolumns on Nitrided Si(111) Substrates via Radio-Frequency Metal–Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Previous Article in Journal
Geometrically Necessary Dislocations on Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline TRIP Steel
Previous Article in Special Issue
Optimal Sr-Doped Free TiO2@SrTiO3 Heterostructured Nanowire Arrays for High-Efficiency Self-Powered Photoelectrochemical UV Photodetector Applications
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Energy-Dependent RBS Channelling Analysis of Epitaxial ZnO Layers Grown on ZnO by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena, Germany
Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, 07745 Jena, Germany
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(6), 290;
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
PDF [1583 KB, uploaded 4 June 2019]


The transparent conducting oxides ZnO and ZnO:Al are interesting materials for a wide range of applications. Several of these applications need a large area, single crystalline, and specially doped thin layers. A common technique for the fabrication of those layers is RF (radio frequency) -magnetron sputtering. The investigation of the crystal quality of such layers requires methods of analysis that are destruction free and that are able to obtain information about the concentration and type of defects versus depth. One such option is the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) in channelling mode. In this work, we exploit the channelling effect and its energy dependence, which are sensitive to the type of defects. By using appropriate software and measuring RBS channelling spectra with different beam energies, we were able to determine the depth distribution of point defects and dislocation loops. The presence of dislocation loops was proven using other previously applied analysis methods. The main advantage of RBS in channelling mode is the quantification of point defects, which can be important for defining the electrical and optical properties of such layers. The technique demonstrated is applicable to other defective crystals or thin crystalline layers. View Full-Text
Keywords: ZnO:Al; RBS channelling; structural characterisation ZnO:Al; RBS channelling; structural characterisation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wittkämper, F.; Bikowski, A.; Ellmer, K.; Gärtner, K.; Wendler, E. Energy-Dependent RBS Channelling Analysis of Epitaxial ZnO Layers Grown on ZnO by RF-Magnetron Sputtering. Crystals 2019, 9, 290.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top