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Crystals 2018, 8(9), 341;

Investigation of the Grain Boundary Character and Dislocation Density of Different Types of High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon

Solar Cell Silicon Group, Department of Sustainable Energy Technology, SINTEF Industry, P.O. Box 4760 Torgarden, 7465 Trondheim, Norway
REC Solar Pte. Ltd., 20 Tuas South Ave. 14, Singapore 637312, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Evaluation of Multicrystalline Silicon)
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Wafers from three heights and two different lateral positions (corner and centre) of four industrial multicrystalline silicon ingots were analysed with respect to their grain structure and dislocation density. Three of the ingots were non-seeded and one ingot was seeded. It was found that there is a strong correlation between the ratio of the densities of (coincidence site lattice) CSL grain boundaries and high angle grain boundaries in the bottom of a block and the dislocation cluster density higher in the block. In general, the seeded blocks, both the corner and centre block, have a lower dislocation cluster density than in the non-seeded blocks, which displayed a large variation. The density of the random angle boundaries in the corner blocks of the non-seeded ingots was similar to the density in the seeded ingots, while the density in the centre blocks was lower. However, the density of CSL boundaries was higher in all the non-seeded than in the seeded ingots. It appears that both of these grain boundary densities influence the presence of dislocation clusters, and we propose they act as dislocation sinks and sources, respectively. The ability to generate small grain size material without seeding appears to be correlated to the morphology of the coating, which is generally rougher in the corner positions than in the middle. Furthermore, the density of twins and CSL boundaries depends on the growth mode during initial growth and thus on the degree of supercooling. Controlling both these properties is important in order to be able to successfully produce uniform quality high-performance multicrystalline silicon by the advantageous non-seeding method. View Full-Text
Keywords: silicon; crystallisation; dislocation density; defect; grain boundaries silicon; crystallisation; dislocation density; defect; grain boundaries

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Stokkan, G.; Song, A.; Ryningen, B. Investigation of the Grain Boundary Character and Dislocation Density of Different Types of High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon. Crystals 2018, 8, 341.

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