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Crystals 2018, 8(8), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8080320

Antisolvent Sonocrystallisation of Sodium Chloride and the Evaluation of the Ultrasound Energy Using Modified Classical Nucleation Theory

1
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Surrey, Surrey GU27XH, UK
2
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ultrasound Stimulated Crystallization)
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Abstract

The crystal nucleation rate of sodium chloride in ethanol was investigated by measuring the induction time at various supersaturation ratios under silent and ultrasound irradiation at frequencies between 22 and 500 kHz. Under silent conditions, the data follows the classical nucleation theory showing both the homogeneous and heterogeneous regions and giving an interfacial surface tension of 31.0 mN m−2. Sonication led to a non-linearity in the data and was fitted by a modified classical nucleation theory to account for the additional free energy being supplemented by sonication. For 98 kHz, this free energy increased from 1.33 × 108 to 1.90 × 108 J m−3 for sonication powers of 2 to 15 W, respectively. It is speculated that the energy was supplemented by the localised bubble collapses and collisions. Increasing the frequency from 22 to 500 kHz revealed that a minimum induction time was obtained at frequencies between 44 and 98 kHz, which has been attributed to the overall collapse intensity being the strongest at these frequencies. View Full-Text
Keywords: sonocrystallisation; antisolvent; ultrasound; acoustic cavitation; induction time; classical nucleation theory; free energy sonocrystallisation; antisolvent; ultrasound; acoustic cavitation; induction time; classical nucleation theory; free energy
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Lee, J.; Yang, S. Antisolvent Sonocrystallisation of Sodium Chloride and the Evaluation of the Ultrasound Energy Using Modified Classical Nucleation Theory. Crystals 2018, 8, 320.

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