Next Article in Journal
Crystal Structure of Bovine Alpha-Chymotrypsin in Space Group P65
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis and Characterization of a Monoclinic Crystalline Phase of Hydroxyapatite by Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Crystals 2018, 8(12), 459;

Information Capacity of Positron Emission Tomography Scanners

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, University of West Attica, Ag. Spyridonos, 12210 Athens, Greece
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece
Atrinno, Attica Research and Innovation, 11631 Athens, Greece
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single Crystals for Biomedical Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1160 KB, uploaded 9 December 2018]   |  


Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the upper information content bound of positron emission tomography (PET) images, by means of the information capacity (IC). Methods: The Geant4 Application for the Tomographic Emission (GATE) Monte Carlo (MC) package was used, and reconstructed images were obtained by using the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR). The case study for the assessment of the information content was the General Electric (GE) Discovery-ST PET scanner. A thin-film plane source aluminum (Al) foil, coated with a thin layer of silica and with a 18F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) bath distribution of 1 MBq was used. The influence of the (a) maximum likelihood estimation-ordered subsets-maximum a posteriori probability-one step late (MLE-OS-MAP-OSL) algorithm, using various subsets (1 to 21) and iterations (1 to 20) and (b) different scintillating crystals on PET scanner’s performance, was examined. The study was focused on the noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) and on the single index IC. Images of configurations by using different crystals were obtained after the commonly used 2-dimensional filtered back projection (FBP2D), 3-dimensional filtered back projection re-projection (FPB3DRP) and the (MLE)-OS-MAP-OSL algorithms. Results: Results shown that the images obtained with one subset and various iterations provided maximum NEQ values, however with a steep drop-off after 0.045 cycles/mm. The single index IC data were maximized for the range of 8–20 iterations and three subsets. The PET scanner configuration incorporating lutetium orthoaluminate perovskite (LuAP) crystals provided the highest NEQ values in 2D FBP for spatial frequencies higher than 0.028 cycles/mm. Bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) shows clear dominance against all other examined crystals across the spatial frequency range, in both 3D FBP and OS-MAP-OSL. The particular PET scanner provided optimum IC values using FBP3DRP and BGO crystals (2.4829 bits/mm2). Conclusions: The upper bound of the image information content of PET scanners can be fully characterized and further improved by investigating the imaging chain components through MC methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: single crystals; 18F-FDG; PET; image quality; Monte Carlo; Geant4; STIR; information capacity; FBP; OSEM single crystals; 18F-FDG; PET; image quality; Monte Carlo; Geant4; STIR; information capacity; FBP; OSEM

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Michail, C.; Karpetas, G.; Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; Kandarakis, I.; Agavanakis, K.; Panayiotakis, G.; Fountos, G. Information Capacity of Positron Emission Tomography Scanners. Crystals 2018, 8, 459.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top