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Crystals 2018, 8(12), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8120458

Synthesis and Characterization of a Monoclinic Crystalline Phase of Hydroxyapatite by Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

1
Institutode Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, Puebla 72570, Mexico
2
CONACYT-Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Postgrado en Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Av. San Claudio y Av. 18 sur, Colonia San Manuel Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla 72570, Mexico
3
Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Basovizza-Trieste, Italy
4
Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, México City 04510, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallization Under Special and Physical Environments)
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Abstract

In this work, we report the synthesis of a monoclinic hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] (hereafter called HA) prepared by the sol-gel method assisted by ultrasound radiation at room temperature. The characterization of both the monoclinic and the hexagonal phases were performed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and using synchrotron radiation (SR). The measurement of the piezoelectricity was performed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The synthesis produced a mixture of monoclinic and hexagonal hydroxyapatite (HA). We also discuss the importance of stabilizing the monoclinic phase at room temperature with ultrasound irradiation. The existence of the monoclinic phase has important advantages in terms of showing piezoelectric properties for applications in the new medical rehabilitation therapies. Rietveld refinement of the PXRD data from SR indicated the monoclinic phase to be of about 81%. Finally, piezoelectric force microscopy was used to distinguish the phases of hydroxyapatite by measuring the average piezoelectric coefficient deff = 10.8 pm/V. View Full-Text
Keywords: hexagonal/monoclinic hydroxyapatite; sol-gel synthesis; piezoelectricity; piezoelectric properties; crystal growth hexagonal/monoclinic hydroxyapatite; sol-gel synthesis; piezoelectricity; piezoelectric properties; crystal growth
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pérez-Solis, R.; Gervacio-Arciniega, J.J.; Joseph, B.; Mendoza, M.E.; Moreno, A. Synthesis and Characterization of a Monoclinic Crystalline Phase of Hydroxyapatite by Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. Crystals 2018, 8, 458.

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