Next Article in Journal
Preparation, Crystal structure and Luminescence Properties of Lanthanide Complexes with 2,4,6-tri(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine and Organic Carboxylic Acid
Previous Article in Journal
Phase Transition Behavior of the Layered Perovskite CsBi0.6La0.4Nb2O7: A Hybrid Improper Ferroelectric
Previous Article in Special Issue
Numerical and Experimental Study of Optoelectronic Trapping on Iron-Doped Lithium Niobate Substrate
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Crystals 2017, 7(5), 137;

Domain Patterning in Ion-Sliced LiNbO3 Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of FSRC “Crystallography and Photonics” RAS, Moscow 119333, Russia
Jinan Jingzheng Electronics Co. Ltd., Jinan 250101, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria-Pilar Bernal
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 14 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Niobate Crystals)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3368 KB, uploaded 14 May 2017]   |  


Photonic structures denoted as LNOI (LiNbO3-on-insulator) are of considerable interest for integrated optics due to a high refractive-index contrast provided by the interface LiNbO3/insulator. A topical problem for LNOI-based optical waveguides is optical-frequency conversion, in particular realized on ferroelectric domains on the basis of quasi phase-matching principle. This paper presents extended studies on the fabrication of domain patterns by atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods (raster lithography, piezo-force microscopy, conductive AFM) in single-crystal ion-sliced LiNbO3 films forming LNOI sandwiches. A body of data obtained on writing characteristics of domains and specified 1D and 2D domain patterns permitted us to manipulate the domain sizes and shapes. Of special importance is the stability of created patterns, which persist with no degradation during observation times of months. The domain coalescence leading to the transformation of a discrete domain pattern to a continuous one was investigated. This specific effect—found in thin LiNbO3 layers for the first time—was attributed to the grounding of space-charges accumulated on domain walls. Observations of an enhanced static conduction at domain walls exceeding that in surrounding areas by not less than by five orders of magnitude supports this assumption. AFM domain writing in ion-sliced films serves as a basis for studies in nonlinear photonic crystals in integrated optical schemes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lithium niobate; LNOI; ferroelectric domains; domain-wall conduction; AFM Lithium niobate; LNOI; ferroelectric domains; domain-wall conduction; AFM

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Volk, T.; Gainutdinov, R.; Zhang, H. Domain Patterning in Ion-Sliced LiNbO3 Films by Atomic Force Microscopy. Crystals 2017, 7, 137.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top