Next Article in Journal
Pinning Effect of Cerium Inclusions during Austenite Grains Growth in SS400 Steel at 1300 °C: A Combined Phase Field and Experimental Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Formation of Metastable Crystals from Supercooled, Supersaturated, and Supercompressed Liquids: Role of Crystal-Liquid Interfacial Free Energy
Previous Article in Journal
Progress in Indentation Study of Materials via Both Experimental and Numerical Methods
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Overview on Magnetic Field and Electric Field Interactions with Ice Crystallisation; Application in the Case of Frozen Food
Open AccessReview

Challenges of Handling, Processing, and Studying Liquid and Supercooled Materials at Temperatures above 3000 K with Electrostatic Levitation

1
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba Space Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505, Japan
2
SOKEN-DAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Sagamihara 252-5210, Japan
3
INO, Remote Sensing Group, 2740 Einstein, Québec City, QC G1P 4S4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Geun Woo Lee and Helmut Cölfen
Crystals 2017, 7(10), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst7100309
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Formation from Metastable Liquids)
Over the last 20 years, great progress has been made in techniques for electrostatic levitation, with innovations such as containerless thermophysical property measurements and combination of levitators with synchrotron radiation source and neutron beams, to name but a few. This review focuses on the technological developments necessary for handling materials whose melting temperatures are above 3000 K. Although the original electrostatic levitator designed by Rhim et al. allowed the handling, processing, and study of most metals with melting points below 2500 K, several issues appeared, in addition to the risk of contamination, when metals such as Os, Re, and W were processed. This paper describes the procedures and the innovations that made successful levitation and the study of refractory metals at extreme temperatures (>3000 K) possible; namely, sample handling, electrode design (shape and material), levitation initiation, laser heating configuration, and UV range imaging. Typical results are also presented, putting emphasis on the measurements of density, surface tension, and viscosity of refractory materials in their liquid and supercooled phases. The data obtained are exemplified by tungsten, which has the highest melting temperature among metals (and is second only to carbon in the periodic table), rhenium and osmium. The remaining technical difficulties such as temperature measurement and evaporation are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: high temperature; levitation; refractory metals; supercooling; thermophysical property high temperature; levitation; refractory metals; supercooling; thermophysical property
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ishikawa, T.; Paradis, P.-F. Challenges of Handling, Processing, and Studying Liquid and Supercooled Materials at Temperatures above 3000 K with Electrostatic Levitation. Crystals 2017, 7, 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst7100309

AMA Style

Ishikawa T, Paradis P-F. Challenges of Handling, Processing, and Studying Liquid and Supercooled Materials at Temperatures above 3000 K with Electrostatic Levitation. Crystals. 2017; 7(10):309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst7100309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-François. 2017. "Challenges of Handling, Processing, and Studying Liquid and Supercooled Materials at Temperatures above 3000 K with Electrostatic Levitation" Crystals 7, no. 10: 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst7100309

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop