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Article

Kilohertz Macromolecular Crystallography Using an EIGER Detector at Low X-ray Fluxes

1
Institute of Physics, ELI Beamlines, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 1999/2, 18221 Prague, Czech Republic
2
Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
3
Laboratory of Structure and Function of Biomolecules, Institute of Biotechnology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, BIOCEV, Prumyslova 595, 25250 Vestec, Czech Republic
4
Institut Galien Paris-Saclay, CNRS UMR8612, Université Paris-Saclay, F-92290 Châtenay-Malabry, France
5
Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, Box 596, 75124 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2020, 10(12), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10121146
Received: 2 November 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 16 December 2020
Time-resolved in-house macromolecular crystallography is primarily limited by the capabilities of the in-house X-ray sources. These sources can only provide a time-averaged structure of the macromolecules. A significant effort has been made in the development of in-house laser-driven ultrafast X-ray sources, with one of the goals as realizing the visualization of the structural dynamics of macromolecules at a very short timescale within the laboratory-scale infrastructure. Most of such in-house ultrafast X-ray sources are operated at high repetition rates and usually deliver very low flux. Therefore, the necessity of a detector that can operate at the repetition rate of the laser and perform extremely well under low flux conditions is essential. Here, we present experimental results demonstrating the usability of the hybrid-pixel detectors, such as Eiger X 1M, and provide experimental proof that they can be successfully operated to collect macromolecular crystallographic data up to a detector frame rate of 3 kHz from synchrotron sources. Our results also show that the data reduction and structural analysis are successful at such high frame rates and fluxes as low as 108 photons/s, which is comparable to the values expected from a typical laser-driven X-ray source. View Full-Text
Keywords: in-house ultrafast macromolecular X-ray crystallography; Eiger X 1M detector; fast X-ray diffraction data acquisition; kilohertz frame rate in-house ultrafast macromolecular X-ray crystallography; Eiger X 1M detector; fast X-ray diffraction data acquisition; kilohertz frame rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khakurel, K.P.; Espinoza, S.; Savko, M.; Polovinkin, V.; Dohnalek, J.; Shepard, W.; Angelova, A.; Hajdu, J.; Andreasson, J.; Angelov, B. Kilohertz Macromolecular Crystallography Using an EIGER Detector at Low X-ray Fluxes. Crystals 2020, 10, 1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10121146

AMA Style

Khakurel KP, Espinoza S, Savko M, Polovinkin V, Dohnalek J, Shepard W, Angelova A, Hajdu J, Andreasson J, Angelov B. Kilohertz Macromolecular Crystallography Using an EIGER Detector at Low X-ray Fluxes. Crystals. 2020; 10(12):1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10121146

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khakurel, Krishna P., Shirly Espinoza, Martin Savko, Vitaly Polovinkin, Jan Dohnalek, William Shepard, Angelina Angelova, Janos Hajdu, Jakob Andreasson, and Borislav Angelov. 2020. "Kilohertz Macromolecular Crystallography Using an EIGER Detector at Low X-ray Fluxes" Crystals 10, no. 12: 1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10121146

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