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Open AccessArticle

Waste Seashells as a Highly Active Catalyst for Cyclopentanone Self-Aldol Condensation

1
College of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China
2
Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering, School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology—Shandong Academy of Sciences, No. 3501, Daxue Road, Jinan 250353, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Catalysts 2019, 9(8), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9080661
Received: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
For the first time, waste-seashell-derived CaO catalysts were used as high-performance solid base catalysts for cyclopentanone self-condensation, which is an important reaction in bio-jet fuel or perfume precursor synthesis. Among the investigated seashell-derived catalysts, Scapharca Broughtonii-derived CaO catalyst (S-shell-750) exhibited the highest dimer yield (92.1%), which was comparable with commercial CaO (88.2%). The activity sequence of different catalysts was consistent with the CaO purity sequence and contact angle sequence. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that CaCO3 in waste shell were completely converted to CaO after calcination at 750 °C or above for 4 h. CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD) results indicate that both the amount and strength of base sites increase significantly when the calcination temperature climbs to 750 °C. Therefore, we can attribute the excellent performance of S-shell-750/850/950 catalysts to the higher CaO content, relatively low hydrophilicity, and stronger acidity and basicity of this catalyst. This study developed a new route for waste shell utilization in bio-derived ketone aldol condensation. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; waste seashell; aldol condensation; heterogeneous catalyst biomass; waste seashell; aldol condensation; heterogeneous catalyst
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sheng, X.; Xu, Q.; Wang, X.; Li, N.; Jia, H.; Shi, H.; Niu, M.; Zhang, J.; Ping, Q. Waste Seashells as a Highly Active Catalyst for Cyclopentanone Self-Aldol Condensation. Catalysts 2019, 9, 661.

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