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Open AccessArticle

Replacement of Chromium by Non-Toxic Metals in Lewis-Acid MOFs: Assessment of Stability as Glucose Conversion Catalysts

1
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
3
Department of Chemistry, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
4
Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Catalysts 2019, 9(5), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9050437
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOFs for Advanced Applications)
The metal–organic framework MIL-101(Cr) is known as a solid–acid catalyst for the solution conversion of biomass-derived glucose to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF). We study the substitution of Cr3+ by Fe3+ and Sc3+ in the MIL-101 structure in order to prepare more environmentally benign catalysts. MIL-101(Fe) can be prepared, and the inclusion of Sc is possible at low levels (10% of Fe replaced). On extended synthesis times the polymorphic MIL-88B structure instead forms.Increasing the amount of Sc also only yields MIL-88B, even at short crystallisation times. The MIL-88B structure is unstable under hydrothermal conditions, but in dimethylsulfoxide solvent, it provides 5-HMF from glucose as the major product. The optimum material is a bimetallic (Fe,Sc) form of MIL-88B, which provides ~70% conversion of glucose with 35% selectivity towards 5-HMF after 3 hours at 140 °C: this offers high conversion compared to other heterogeneous catalysts reported in the same solvent. View Full-Text
Keywords: Metal–organic framework; Lewis acid; fructose; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural; biomass Metal–organic framework; Lewis acid; fructose; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural; biomass
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pertiwi, R.; Oozeerally, R.; Burnett, D.L.; Chamberlain, T.W.; Cherkasov, N.; Walker, M.; Kashtiban, R.J.; Krisnandi, Y.K.; Degirmenci, V.; Walton, R.I. Replacement of Chromium by Non-Toxic Metals in Lewis-Acid MOFs: Assessment of Stability as Glucose Conversion Catalysts. Catalysts 2019, 9, 437.

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