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Catalysts 2019, 9(3), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9030258

Heterogeneous Fenton-Like Degradation of p-Nitrophenol over Tailored Carbon-Based Materials

1
LSRE-LCM—Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering—Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
LEPABE—Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts for Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs))
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Abstract

Activated carbon (AC), carbon xerogel (XG), and carbon nanotubes (CNT), with and without N-functionalities, were prepared. Catalysts were obtained after impregnation of these materials with 2 wt.% of iron. The materials were characterized in terms of N2 adsorption at −196 °C, elemental analysis (EA), and the pH at the point of zero charge (pHPZC). The p-nitrophenol (PNP) degradation and mineralization (assessed in terms of total organic carbon–TOC–removal) were evaluated during adsorption, catalytic wet peroxidation (CWPO), and Fenton process. The textural and chemical properties of the carbon-based materials play an important role in such processes, as it was found that the support with the highest surface area -AC- presents the best performance in adsorption, whereas the materials with the highest mesopore surface area -XG or Fe/XG- lead to best removals by oxidation processes (for XG it was achieved 39.7 and 35.0% and for Fe/XG 45.4 and 41.7% for PNP and TOC, respectively). The presence of N-functionalities increases such removals. The materials were reused in consecutive cycles: the carbon-based materials were deactivated by hydrogen peroxide, while the catalysts showed high stability and no Fe leaching. For the support with superior performances -XG-, the effect of nitrogen content was also evaluated. The removals increase with the increase of the nitrogen content, the maximum removals (81% and 65% for PNP and TOC, respectively) being reached when iron supported on a carbon xerogel doped with melamine was used as catalyst. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon xerogel; carbon nanotubes; activated carbon; adsorption; catalytic wet peroxidation; heterogeneous Fenton’s oxidation; p-nitrophenol carbon xerogel; carbon nanotubes; activated carbon; adsorption; catalytic wet peroxidation; heterogeneous Fenton’s oxidation; p-nitrophenol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Soares, O.S.G.P.; Rodrigues, C.S.D.; Madeira, L.M.; Pereira, M.F.R. Heterogeneous Fenton-Like Degradation of p-Nitrophenol over Tailored Carbon-Based Materials. Catalysts 2019, 9, 258.

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