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Facile Green Preparation of Rhodium Nanoclusters Supported Nano-Scaled Graphene Platelets for Sonogashira Coupling Reaction and Reduction of p-Nitrophenol

1
Department of Crop Science, College of Sanghur Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.
2
School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu 620-024, India
3
Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Division of Frontier Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano Prefecture 386-8567, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(11), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9110908
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 20 October 2019 / Accepted: 23 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
Rhodium nanoclusters were uniformly dispersed on nano-scaled graphene platelets by a simple ‘mix and heat’ method without using any toxic reagents. Distilled water was used to obtain the homogenous dispersion of Rh-nanoclusters on graphene platelets. The morphology of the resultant catalyst (Rh(0)NCs/GNPs) was studied by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analyses. The X-ray photoemission spectroscope (XPS) result confirmed the metallic form of Rh-nanoclusters in Rh(0)NCs/GNPs. The crystalline property and the interaction between Rh-nanoclusters and graphene platelets (GNPs) were studied by means of XRD and Raman analysis. The Rh-loading in Rh(0)NCs/GNPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscope (SEM-EDS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscope (ICP-MS) analysis. After being optimized, the Rh(0)NCs/GNPs used as catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH4 and the Sonogashira coupling reaction between iodobenzene with phenylacetylene. To our delight, the Rh(0)NCs/GNPs showed excellent catalytic activity towards the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with an excellent turnover frequency (TOF) value of 112.5 min−1. The kapp and k’ values were calculated to be 62.07 × 10−3 min−1(0.002 mg of Rh(0)NCs/GNPs) and 31035 × 10−3 mg−1 min−1,respectively. Alike, under the optimal conditions, the Rh(0)NCs/GNPs gave the desired product, diphenylacetylene, in a good yield of 87% with 91% selectivity. The Rh(0)NCs/GNPs can be reused without significant loss in its catalytic activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: grapheneplatelets; Rh-nanoclusters; green preparation; 4-Nitrophenol; C–C coupling reaction; reusability grapheneplatelets; Rh-nanoclusters; green preparation; 4-Nitrophenol; C–C coupling reaction; reusability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mayakrishnan, G.; Somasundaram, S.; Ullah, S.; Andivelu, I.; Ick Soo, K.; Ill Min, C. Facile Green Preparation of Rhodium Nanoclusters Supported Nano-Scaled Graphene Platelets for Sonogashira Coupling Reaction and Reduction of p-Nitrophenol. Catalysts 2019, 9, 908.

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