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Open AccessArticle

Heterogeneous Oxidation of Phenolic Compounds with Photosensitizing Catalysts Incorporated into Chitosan

1
Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska 213, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
2
Textile Company Bilinski, Mickiewicza 29, 95-050 Konstantynow Lodzki, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(11), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9110891
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 19 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Photocatalysis)
The increasing amount of hazardous micropollutants in the aqueous environment has recently become a concern, especially because they are not usually included in environmental monitoring programs. There is also limited knowledge regarding their behavior in the environment and their toxicity. This paper presents results regarding the heterogeneous photosensitized oxidation of 10 phenolic compounds under visible light. All of the selected compounds are classified as pollutants of emerging concern. For the first time, the application of photosensitizing catalysts incorporated into a chitosan carrier was investigated from several points of view, namely, structure characterization, singlet oxygen generation potential, photodegradation ability, biodegradability, and toxicity assessment. It was found that compounds of different origins were degraded with high effectivity. Photoactive chitosan was stable and could be reused for at least 12 cycles without losing its photocatalytic activity. The Hammett constants for all of the degraded compounds were determined. Improved biodegradability after the treatment was achieved for almost all compounds, apart from 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and only slightly for 2-phenylphenol. The acute toxicity was assessed using bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri bacteria, indicating lower toxicity than the parent compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: immobilized photosensitizer; micropollutant; singlet oxygen; time-resolved spectroscopy; Hammett constant; photodegradation immobilized photosensitizer; micropollutant; singlet oxygen; time-resolved spectroscopy; Hammett constant; photodegradation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Foszpańczyk, M.; Bilińska, L.; Gmurek, M.; Ledakowicz, S. Heterogeneous Oxidation of Phenolic Compounds with Photosensitizing Catalysts Incorporated into Chitosan. Catalysts 2019, 9, 891.

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