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Open AccessArticle

Oxidized Palladium Supported on Ceria Nanorods for Catalytic Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde in Protic Solvents

1
Department of Science, “Roma Tre” University, 00146 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, INAIL Research, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Energy Technologies, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), 00123 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Science, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(10), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9100847
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 5 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Nanostructured Catalysts)
In the present study, the catalytic activity of palladium oxide (PdOx) supported on ceria nanorods (CeO2-NR) for aerobic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BnOH) to benzaldehyde (PhCHO) was evaluated. The CeO2-NR was synthesized hydrothermally and the Pd(NO3)2 was deposited by a wet impregnation method, followed by calcination to acquire PdOx/CeO2-NR. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, the TPR-reduced PdOx/CeO2-NR (PdOx/CeO2-NR-Red) was studied by XRD, BET, and XPS. Characterizations showed the formation of CeO2-NR with (111) exposed plane and relatively high BET surface area. PdOx (x > 1) was detected to be the major oxide species on the PdOx/CeO2-NR. The activities of the catalysts in BnOH oxidation were evaluated using air, as an environmentally friendly oxidant, and various solvents. Effects of temperature and palladium oxidation state were investigated. The PdOx/CeO2-NR showed remarkable activity when protic solvents were utilized. The best result was achieved using PdOx/CeO2-NR and boiling ethanol as solvent, leading to 93% BnOH conversion and 96% selectivity toward PhCHO. A mechanistic hypothesis for BnOH oxidation with PdOx/CeO2-NR in ethanol is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzyl alcohol; aerobic oxidation; ceria nanorods; PdOx/CeO2 catalyst; selectivity benzyl alcohol; aerobic oxidation; ceria nanorods; PdOx/CeO2 catalyst; selectivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moeini, S.S.; Battocchio, C.; Casciardi, S.; Luisetto, I.; Lupattelli, P.; Tofani, D.; Tuti, S. Oxidized Palladium Supported on Ceria Nanorods for Catalytic Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde in Protic Solvents. Catalysts 2019, 9, 847.

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