Next Article in Journal
The Enzyme-Like Property and Photocatalytic Effect on α, α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) of CuPt Nanocomposite
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis, Characterization, Solution Behavior and Theoretical Studies of Pd(II) Allyl Complexes with 2-Phenyl-3H-indoles as Ligands
Open AccessArticle

ZIF-8 Metal Organic Framework for the Conversion of Glucose to Fructose and 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural

1
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, Rotterdam Mainport Institute, Rotterdam 3024 EA, The Netherlands
3
School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(10), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9100812
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 17 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
Herein, Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) is considered as an easy and cheap to prepare alternative catalyst for the isomerization of glucose and production of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). For the synthesis of the ZIF-8 catalysts two preparation methods were evaluated, being room temperature and hydrothermal synthesis at 140 °C. Of these, the hydrothermal synthesis method yields a material with exceptionally high surface area (1967 m2·g−1). As a catalyst, the ZIF-8 materials generated excellent fructose yields. Specifically, ZIF-8 prepared by hydrothermal synthesis yielded a fructose selectivity of 65% with a glucose conversion of 24% at 100 °C in aqueous reaction medium. However, this selectivity dropped dramatically when the reactions were repeated at higher temperatures (~140 °C). Interestingly, greater quantities of mannose were produced at higher temperatures too. The lack of strong Brønsted acidity in both ZIF-8 materials resulted in poor HMF yields. In order to improve HMF yields, reactions were performed at a lower pH of 1.0. At 140 °C the lower pH was found to drive the reaction towards HMF and double its yield. Despite the excellent performance of ZIF-8 catalysts in batch reactions, their activity did not translate well to the flow reactor over a continuous run of 8 h, which was operating with a residence time of 6 min. The activity of ZIF-8 halved in the flow reactor at 100 °C in ~3 h, which implies that the catalyst’s stability was not maintained in the long run. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal organic framework; zeolitic imidazolate framework; HMF; biomass; catalysis; glucose metal organic framework; zeolitic imidazolate framework; HMF; biomass; catalysis; glucose
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Oozeerally, R.; Ramkhelawan, S.D.K.; Burnett, D.L.; Tempelman, C.H.L.; Degirmenci, V. ZIF-8 Metal Organic Framework for the Conversion of Glucose to Fructose and 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural. Catalysts 2019, 9, 812.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop