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Open AccessArticle

Rapid Immobilization of Cellulase onto Graphene Oxide with a Hydrophobic Spacer

College of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Qinzhou University, Qinzhou 535011, China
School of Pharmacy, United Pharmaceutical Institute of Jiangsu University and Shandong Tianzhilvye Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
School of Pharmacy, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(5), 180;
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immobilized Biocatalysts)
PDF [667 KB, uploaded 28 April 2018]


A rapid immobilization method for cellulase was developed. Functional graphene oxide was synthesized and grafted with hydrophobic spacer P-β-sulfuric acid ester ethyl sulfone aniline (SESA) though etherification and diazotization. The functionalized graphene oxide was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and was used as the carrier for the immobilization of cellulase via covalent binding. The immobilization of cellulase was finished in a very short time (10 min) and very high immobilization yield and efficiency of above 90% were achieved after optimization. When compared with the free cellulase, thermal and operational stabilities of the immobilized cellulase were improved significantly. At 50 °C, the half-life of the immobilized cellulase (533 min) was six-fold higher than that of the free cellulase (89 min). Additionally, the affinity between immobilized cellulase (Km = 2.19 g·L−1) and substrate was more favorable than that of free cellulase (Km = 3.84 g·L−1), suggesting the immobilized cellulase has higher catalytic efficiency. The possible immobilization mechanism was proposed. The results strongly indicate that the immobilization is highly efficient and has great potential for the immobilization of other enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Graphene hybrid; Surface modification; Cellulase; Immobilization; Stability Graphene hybrid; Surface modification; Cellulase; Immobilization; Stability

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gao, J.; Lu, C.-L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.-S.; Shen, J.-J.; Zhang, J.-X.; Zhang, Y.-W. Rapid Immobilization of Cellulase onto Graphene Oxide with a Hydrophobic Spacer. Catalysts 2018, 8, 180.

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