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Catalysts 2018, 8(10), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8100449

Synthesis and Regeneration of Nickel-Based Catalysts for Hydrodeoxygenation of Beech Wood Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil

1
Institute of Catalysis Research and Technology (IKFT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
2
Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
3
Instituto Tecnologico de Buenos Aires (ITBA), Buenos Aires C1106ACD, Argentina
4
Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract

Four nickel-based catalysts are synthesized by wet impregnation and evaluated for the hydrotreatment/hydrodeoxygenation of beech wood fast-pyrolysis bio-oil. Parameters such as elemental analysis, pH value, and water content, as well as the heating value of the upgraded bio-oils are considered for the evaluation of the catalysts’ activity and catalyst reuse in cycles of hydrodeoxygenation after regeneration. The reduction temperature, selectivity and hydrogen consumption are distinct among them, although all catalysts tested produce upgraded bio-oils with reduced oxygen concentration, lower water content and higher energy density. Ni/SiO2, in particular, can remove more than 50% of the oxygen content and reduce the water content by more than 80%, with low coke and gas formation. The evaluation over four consecutive hydrotreatment reactions and catalyst regeneration shows a slightly reduced hydrodeoxygenation activity of Ni/SiO2, mainly due to deactivation caused by sintering and adsorption of poisoning substances, such as sulfur. Following the fourth catalyst reuse, the upgraded bio-oil shows 43% less oxygen in comparison to the feedstock and properties comparable to the upgraded bio-oil obtained with the fresh catalyst. Hence, nickel-based catalysts are promising for improving hardwood fast-pyrolysis bio-oil properties, especially monometallic nickel catalysts supported on silica. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrodeoxygenation; fast-pyrolysis bio-oil; nickel catalyst; upgrading hydrodeoxygenation; fast-pyrolysis bio-oil; nickel catalyst; upgrading
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Carriel Schmitt, C.; Gagliardi Reolon, M.B.; Zimmermann, M.; Raffelt, K.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Dahmen, N. Synthesis and Regeneration of Nickel-Based Catalysts for Hydrodeoxygenation of Beech Wood Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Catalysts 2018, 8, 449.

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