Next Article in Journal
Total Oxidation of Naphthalene with Zirconia-Supported Cobalt, Copper and Nickel Catalysts
Next Article in Special Issue
Immobilization of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenase with a Polyion Complex and Redox Polymer for a Bioanode
Previous Article in Journal
Morpholine-Modified Pd/γ-Al2O3@ASMA Pellet Catalyst with Excellent Catalytic Selectivity in the Hydrogenation of p-Chloronitrobenzene to p-Chloroaniline
Previous Article in Special Issue
Study of 8 Types of Glutathione Peroxidase Mimics Based on β-Cyclodextrin
Open AccessArticle

Transformation of Sugar Maple Bark through Catalytic Organosolv Pulping

Centre de Recherche de sur les Matériaux Renouvelables, Département des Sciences du Bois et de la Forêt, Université Laval, Quebec, QC G1A 0A6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuel Ferrer
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 294;
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocatalysis and Biotransformations)
PDF [1247 KB, uploaded 30 September 2017]


The catalytic organosolv pulping of sugar maple bark was performed adopting the concept of forest biorefinery in order to transform bark into several valuable products. Our organosolv process, consisting of pre-extracting the lignocellulosic material followed by pulping with ferric chloride as a catalyst, was applied to sugar maple bark. The pre-extraction step has yielded a mixture of phenolic extractives, applicable as antioxidants. The organosolv pulping of extractives-free sugar maple bark yielded a solid cellulosic pulp (42.3%) and a black liquor containing solubilized bark lignin (24.1%) and products of sugars transformation (22.9% of hemicelluloses), mainly represented by furfural (0.35%) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF, 0.74%). The bark cellulosic pulp was determined to be mainly constituted of glucose, with a high residual lignin content, probably related to the protein content of the original bark (containing cambium tissue). The biorefinery approach to the transformation of a solid bark residue into valuable biopolymers (lignin and cellulose) along with phenolic antioxidants from pre-extraction and the HMF derivatives from black liquor (applicable for 2,5-diformylfuran production) is an example of a catalytic process reposing on sustainable engineering and green chemistry concepts. View Full-Text
Keywords: sugar maple bark; catalytic organosolv pulping; cellulosic pulp; organosolv lignin; phenolic extractives; furan derivatives sugar maple bark; catalytic organosolv pulping; cellulosic pulp; organosolv lignin; phenolic extractives; furan derivatives

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Koumba-Yoya, G.; Stevanovic, T. Transformation of Sugar Maple Bark through Catalytic Organosolv Pulping. Catalysts 2017, 7, 294.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Catalysts EISSN 2073-4344 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top