Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Application of Novel Ruthenium Catalysts for High Temperature Alkene Metathesis
Next Article in Special Issue
Aziridine- and Azetidine-Pd Catalytic Combinations. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Ligand Ring Size Impact on Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction Issues
Previous Article in Journal
Core-Shell Structured [email protected]2 Catalysts Exhibiting Excellent Catalytic Performance for Syngas Methanation Reactions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Preparation of [email protected] and Its Catalytic Performance for the Suzuki Coupling Reaction
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Plant Extract Mediated Eco-Friendly Synthesis of [email protected] Nanocatalyst: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Duesbergweg, 55128 Mainz, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ioannis D. Kostas
Catalysts 2017, 7(1), 20;
Received: 27 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 9 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction and Potential Applications)
PDF [4156 KB, uploaded 9 January 2017]


Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction catalyzed by the palladium (Pd)-based nanomaterials is one of the most versatile methods for the preparation of biaryls. However, use of organic solvents as reaction medium causes a big threat to environment due to the generation of toxic byproducts as waste during the work up of these reactions. Therefore, the use of water as reaction media has attracted tremendous attention due to its environmental, economic, and safety benefits. In this study, we report on the synthesis of green [email protected] nanocatalyst based on an in situ functionalization approach which exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of phenyl halides with phenyl boronic acids under facile conditions in water. The green and environmentally friendly synthesis of [email protected] nanocatalyst (PG-HRG-Pd) is carried out by simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) and PdCl2 using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as reducing and stabilizing agent. The phytomolecules present in the plant extract (PE) not only facilitated the reduction of PdCl2, but also helped to stabilize the surface of PG-HRG-Pd nanocatalyst, which significantly enhanced the dispersibility of nanocatalyst in water. The identification of PG-HRG-Pd was established by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, including, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared PG-HRG-Pd nanocatalyst demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reactions under aqueous, ligand free, and aerobic conditions. Apart from this the reusability of the catalyst was also evaluated and the catalyst yielded excellent results upon reuse for several times with marginal loss of its catalytic performance. Therefore, the method developed for the green synthesis of PG-HRG-Pd nanocatalyst and the eco-friendly protocol used for the Suzuki coupling offers a mild and effective substitute to the existing protocols and may significantly contribute to the endeavors of green chemistry. View Full-Text
Keywords: green synthesis; plant extract; palladium; graphene and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling green synthesis; plant extract; palladium; graphene and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, M.; Kuniyil, M.; Shaik, M.R.; Khan, M.; Adil, S.F.; Al-Warthan, A.; Alkhathlan, H.Z.; Tremel, W.; Tahir, M.N.; Siddiqui, M.R.H. Plant Extract Mediated Eco-Friendly Synthesis of [email protected] Nanocatalyst: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling. Catalysts 2017, 7, 20.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Catalysts EISSN 2073-4344 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top