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Efficient Production of Enantiopure d-Lysine from l-Lysine by a Two-Enzyme Cascade System

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, Jiangsu, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jose M. Palomo and Cesar Mateo
Catalysts 2016, 6(11), 168;
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 30 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric and Selective Biocatalysis)
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The microbial production of d-lysine has been of great interest as a medicinal raw material. Here, a two-step process for d-lysine production from l-lysine by the successive microbial racemization and asymmetric degradation with lysine racemase and decarboxylase was developed. The whole-cell activities of engineered Escherichia coli expressing racemases from the strains Proteus mirabilis (LYR) and Lactobacillus paracasei (AAR) were first investigated comparatively. When the strain BL21-LYR with higher racemization activity was employed, l-lysine was rapidly racemized to give dl-lysine, and the d-lysine yield was approximately 48% after 0.5 h. Next, l-lysine was selectively catabolized to generate cadaverine by lysine decarboxylase. The comparative analysis of the decarboxylation activities of resting whole cells, permeabilized cells, and crude enzyme revealed that the crude enzyme was the best biocatalyst for enantiopure d-lysine production. The reaction temperature, pH, metal ion additive, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate content of this two-step production process were subsequently optimized. Under optimal conditions, 750.7 mmol/L d-lysine was finally obtained from 1710 mmol/L l-lysine after 1 h of racemization reaction and 0.5 h of decarboxylation reaction. d-lysine yield could reach 48.8% with enantiomeric excess (ee) ≥ 99%. View Full-Text
Keywords: d-lysine; racemase; decarboxylase; two-enzyme cascade system d-lysine; racemase; decarboxylase; two-enzyme cascade system

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, X.; Yang, L.; Cao, W.; Ying, H.; Chen, K.; Ouyang, P. Efficient Production of Enantiopure d-Lysine from l-Lysine by a Two-Enzyme Cascade System. Catalysts 2016, 6, 168.

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