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Open AccessArticle

Direct Conversion of Carbohydrates into Ethyl Levulinate with Potassium Phosphotungstate as an Efficient Catalyst

1
School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Science Road 100, Zhengzhou 450001, China
2
College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Wenhua Road 95, Zhengzhou 450002, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Motor Vehicle Biofuel Technology, Nanyang 473000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rafael Luque
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 1897-1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5041897
Received: 18 September 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
A series of metal-modified phosphotungstates were prepared and performed for direct synthesis of ethyl levulinate from fructose in ethanol. Considering the cost of catalysts, catalytic activity of catalysts, and easy separation of catalysts together, K-HPW-1 was chosen as the most suitable catalyst for synthesis of ethyl levulinate from fructose. A high ethyl levulinate yield of 64.6 mol% was obtained at 150 °C within 2 h in ethanol. The introduction of low polar toluene as a co-solvent improved the yield of ethyl levulinate to 68.7 mol%. The recovered catalyst remained high activity with the yield of ethyl levulinate converted from fructose above 50 mol% after being used five times. Moreover, the generality of the catalyst was further demonstrated by glucose, sucrose, inulin, and cellulose with ethyl levulinate yielding 14.5, 35.4, 52.3, and 14.8 mol%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethyl levulinate; carbohydrates; potassium phosphotungstate ethyl levulinate; carbohydrates; potassium phosphotungstate
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Zhao, S.; Xu, G.; Chang, C.; Fang, S.; Liu, Z.; Du, F. Direct Conversion of Carbohydrates into Ethyl Levulinate with Potassium Phosphotungstate as an Efficient Catalyst. Catalysts 2015, 5, 1897-1910.

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