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Synthesis of Dual Z-Scheme CuBi2O4/Bi2Sn2O7/Sn3O4 Photocatalysts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance for the Degradation of Tetracycline under Visible Light Irradiation
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Special Issue on “Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment”

School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
School of Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2023, 13(10), 1354;
Submission received: 22 September 2023 / Revised: 8 October 2023 / Accepted: 9 October 2023 / Published: 10 October 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
Water is the source of life on Earth. Sustainable society development heavily relies on a healthy water ecosystem. However, fast urbanization, industrialization and the extensive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other synthetic chemicals have posed great threats to clean water systems by discharging large amounts of non-biodegradable wastewater. Increasing public attention to water crises and the emission of pollutants has driven a huge motivation to develop advanced catalytic technologies in recent decades. Among various water technologies, catalytic transformation with novel materials offers the opportunity to efficiently detoxify and remove pollutants for deep water purification. In this account, we organized this Special Issue with the aim of providing new findings in areas of designing novel advanced catalysts, developing new catalytic processes, recycling raw materials, etc., for water and wastewater treatment.
In total, there are 22 articles published in this Special Issue, including 20 experimental research articles and 2 review articles. Six of them focus on photocatalytic materials and processes. Xu et al. studied the photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible light irradiation with dual Z-scheme CuBi2O4/Bi2Sn2O7/Sn3O4 photocatalysts, and found that the construction of the Z-scheme heterojunction could effectively promote the separation and migration of photogenerated carriers [1]. Peng et al. prepared a Mn-Co-MCM-41 molecular sieve using a thermo-sensitive template, and showed good catalytic performance on the degradation of RhB [2]. Hou et al. reported the Fenton-like degradation of tetracycline with a Co-CNK-OH photocatalyst, and revealed that Co(III)/Co(II) redox was able to accelerate the generation of 1O2, ∙O2 and h+ in the reaction system [3]. Qiu et al. found that carbon quantum dot modification could enhance the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn2S4 nanoflowers for chlorophenol degradation [4]. Du et al. made a high-energy TiO2 nano photocatalyst with co-exposed {001} and {120} facets, and verified that the anatase structure, particle size and surface area and exposed facets of the nanocrystal all contributed to its photocatalytic performance [5]. Zhao et al. fabricated a core–shell ZnO-C/MnO2 material with an all-solid state Z-scheme heterojunction structure and a high photocatalytic reactivity [6].
Moreover, eleven papers seek to provide more insightful results in the field of Fenton-like advanced oxidation. Yang et al. discovered that reducing sulfur species including SO32−, HSO3, S2− and HS could significantly accelerate the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle in Fe(III)/PS systems even at a low concentration [7]. Wang et al. investigated the treatment of coking wastewater via the α-MnO2/PMS process, and found that this catalytic treatment can significantly improve the biodegradability of wastewater [8]. Tian et al. reported large-scale synthesis of iron ore and biomass-derived biochar to activate the persulfate oxidation of tetracycline hydrochloride [9]. Additionally, Qi et al. constructed a Bi2WO6/PMS system where carbamazepine could be efficiently degraded with the assistance of visible light irradiation [10]. Li et al. proved a synergistic effect between nickel ferrite and microwaves in activating persulfate for organic pollutants’ degradation [11]. Also, the influence of some ionic components on the performance of Fenton-like processes was studied. Tang et al. demonstrated the adverse effects of sulfate on brilliant red oxidation by Fe2+-activated persulfate, and indicated that this negative influence could be counteracted either via batch addition of ferrous or by adding Ba2+ to remove SO42− in the system [12]. On the contrary, Feng and Li discovered that chloride could enhance the removal of ammonia nitrogen and organic matter from landfill leachate in a microwave/peroxymonosulfate system [13]. In addition to persulfate or peroxymonosulfate, He et al. found that sludge biochar obtained at an increased pyrolysis temperature was able to activate periodate and degrade sulfamethoxazole through an electron-mediated transfer mechanism [14]. Ling et al. validated the effectiveness of S-nZVI/H2O2 Fenton-like systems toward the synchronous removal of Cr(VI) and bisphenol A [15]. Furthermore, Sun et al. [16] and Li et al. [17] summarized the recent research progress in a persulfate-based advanced oxidation system. The authors included discussions regarding the electrochemical-assisted and metal catalytic activation of persulfate, mechanisms, types of catalysis reactions, as well as future directions.
Additionally, some interesting results in the area of catalytic reduction and adsorption were also achieved. Anum et al. synthesized bimetallic sulfides/MOF-5@graphene oxides, which can quickly eliminate hazardous moxifloxacin [18]. Liao et al. found that FeMgAl/MoS4 LDH could remove Se(IV) and Se(VI) in high capacities of 483.9 mg/g and 167.2 mg/g, respectively, and the existence of Fe in LDH layers obviously enhances the removal process [19]. Elmansouri et al. developed an almond shell material which can economically and effectively remove urban wastewater pollutants [20]. Huang et al. modified SBA-15 with dithiocarbamate chitosan and achieved a significant improvement in the catalytic removal of vanadium [21]. Demirci et al. functionalized magnetic γ-Fe2O3 with leucyl-glycine and then coated it with polydioxanone to form novel γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX nanoparticles, which showed excellent antifouling properties when being used to modify a polyethersulphone membrane [22].
Finally, I would like to thank all the authors for their interesting contributions, the reviewers for their precious remarks and also the Editorial Office for their constant support of this Special Issue.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Xu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Teng, X.; Gao, H.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, M. Synthesis of Dual Z-Scheme CuBi2O4/Bi2Sn2O7/Sn3O4 Photocatalysts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance for the Degradation of Tetracycline under Visible Light Irradiation. Catalysts 2023, 13, 1028. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Peng, W.; Cai, L.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y. Preparation of Mn-Co-MCM-41 Molecular Sieve with Thermosensitive Template and Its Degradation Performance for Rhodamine B. Catalysts 2023, 13, 991. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Hou, D.; Luo, J.; Sun, Q.; Zhang, M.; Wang, J. Preparation of Co-CNK-OH and Its Performance in Fenton-like Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline. Catalysts 2023, 13, 715. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Qiu, J.; Liu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Liu, F.; Wang, F. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of P-Chlorophenol by ZnIn2S4 Nanoflowers Modified with Carbon Quantum Dots. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1545. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Du, Y.; Niu, X.; Li, W.; Liu, J.; Li, J. Synthesis of High-Energy Faceted TiO2 Nanocrystals with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance for the Removal of Methyl Orange. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1534. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Zhao, L.; Yu, T.; Yang, B.; Guo, H.; Liu, L.; Zhang, J.; Gao, C.; Yang, T.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y. Wastewater Purification and All-Solid Z-Scheme Heterojunction ZnO-C/MnO2 Preparation: Properties and Mechanism. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1250. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Yang, F.; Yin, C.; Zhang, M.; Zhu, J.; Ai, X.; Shi, W.; Peng, G. Enhanced Fe(III)/Fe(II) Redox Cycle for Persulfate Activation by Reducing Sulfur Species. Catalysts 2022, 11, 1435. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Wang, J.; Liao, Z.; Cai, J.; Wang, S.; Luo, F.; Ifthikar, J.; Wang, S.; Zhou, X.; Chen, Z. Treatment of Coking Wastewater by α-MnO2/Peroxymonosulfate Process via Direct Electron Transfer Mechanism. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1359. [Google Scholar]
  9. Tian, T.; Zhu, X.; Song, Z.; Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Mao, Y.; Wu, J.; Zhang, W.; Wang, C. Large-Scale Synthesis of Iron Ore@Biomass Derived ESBC to Degrade Tetracycline Hydrochloride for Heterogeneous Persulfate Activation. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Qi, Y.; Zhou, X.; Li, Z.; Yin, R.; Qin, J.; Li, H.; Guo, W.; Li, A.J.; Qiu, R. Photo-Induced Holes Initiating Peroxymonosulfate Oxidation for Carbamazepine Degradation via Singlet Oxygen. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1327. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Li, Y.; Liu, W.; Li, L.; Jiang, S.; Cheng, X. Catalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants by Microwave-Assisted Persulfate Activation System: Performance and Mechanism. Catalysts 2022, 12, 123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Tang, C.; Long, Z.; Wang, Y.; Ma, D.; Zhu, X. Sulfate Decelerated Ferrous Ion-Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Azo Dye Reactive Brilliant Red: Influence Factors, Mechanisms, and Control Methods. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Feng, K.; Li, Q. Chloride-Enhanced Removal of Ammonia Nitrogen and Organic Matter from Landfill Leachate by a Microwave/Peroxymonosulfate System. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1078. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. He, L.; Yang, S.; Yang, L.; Li, Y.; Kong, D.; Wu, L.; Zhang, Z. Converting Hybrid Mechanisms to Electron Transfer Mechanism by Increasing Biochar Pyrolysis Temperature for the Degradation of Sulfamethoxazole in a Sludge Biochar/Periodate System. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Ling, H.; Zhu, X.; Zhou, T.; Su, F.; Du, J.; Bao, J. Hydrogen Peroxide Activation with Sulfidated Zero-Valent Iron for Synchronous Removal of Cr(VI) and BPA. Catalysts 2022, 12, 252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Sun, J.; Zheng, W.; Hu, G.; Liu, F.; Liu, S.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Z. Electrochemically Assisted Persulfate Oxidation of Organic Pollutants in Aqueous Solution: Influences, Mechanisms and Feasibility. Catalysts 2023, 13, 135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Li, J.; Liang, Y.; Jin, P.; Zhao, B.; Zhang, Z.; He, X.; Tan, Z.; Wang, L.; Cheng, X. Heterogeneous Metal-Activated Persulfate and Electrochemically Activated Persulfate: A Review. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1024. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Anum, A.; Nazir, M.A.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Shah, S.S.; Tahir, A.A.; Malik, M.; Wattoo, M.A.; Rehman, A.U. Synthesis of Bi-Metallic-Sulphides/MOF-5@graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for the Removal of Hazardous Moxifloxacin. Catalysts 2023, 13, 984. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Liao, Z.; He, T.; Shi, L.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, X.; Wang, J.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Xu, R. Selenium Oxoanions Removal from Wastewater by MoS42− Intercalated FeMgAl LDH: Catalytic Roles of Fe and Mechanism Insights. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1592. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Elmansouri, I.; Lahkimi, A.; Kara, M.; Hmamou, A.; Mouhri, G.E.; Assouguem, A.; Chaouch, M.; Alrefaei, A.F.; Kamel, M.; Aleya, L.; et al. A Continuous Fixed Bed Adsorption Process for Fez City Urban Wastewater Using Almond Shell Powder: Experimental and Optimization Study. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1535. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Huang, Y.; Wang, J.; Li, M.; You, Z. Application of Dithiocarbamate Chitosan Modified SBA-15 for Catalytic Reductive Removal of Vanadium (V). Catalysts 2022, 12, 1469. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Demirci, Ö.; Gonca, S.; Tolan, V.; Özdemir, S.; Dizge, N.; Kılınç, E. Synthesis and Characterization of a Polydioxanone-Coated Dipeptide-Functionalized Magnetic γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles-Modified PES Membrane and Its Biological Applications. Catalysts 2022, 12, 1261. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Du, J.; Yang, L.; Qi, C. Special Issue on “Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment”. Catalysts 2023, 13, 1354.

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Du J, Yang L, Qi C. Special Issue on “Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment”. Catalysts. 2023; 13(10):1354.

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Du, Jiangkun, Lie Yang, and Chengdu Qi. 2023. "Special Issue on “Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment”" Catalysts 13, no. 10: 1354.

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