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Review

Waste Animal Bones as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production; A Mini Review

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Modeling Evolutionary Algorithms Simulation and Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Khalid University, Guraiger, Abha 62529, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lahore New Campus, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890, Pakistan
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Department of Chemical, Polymer and Composite Materials Engineering, Lahore New Campus, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore 54890, Pakistan
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan 64200, Pakistan
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Glocal University, Delhi-Yamunotri Marg, SH-57, Mirzapur Pole, Saharanpur District, Uttar Pradesh 247121, India
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Department of Mechanical, Biomedical & Design Engineering, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
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Biofuel lab, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid I Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
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Department of biological sciences, Islamic International University, Sector H-10, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jesús M. Requies, José Francisco Cambra Ibáñez and Victoria Laura Barrio Cagigal
Catalysts 2021, 11(5), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050630
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 8 May 2021 / Accepted: 10 May 2021 / Published: 13 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis in Green Chemistry)
Slaughterhouse waste is considered to be an emerging issue because of its disposal cost. As an alternative, it would be a great prospect for the bioeconomy society to explore new usages of these leftover materials. As per food safety rules mentioned by EU legislation, all bone waste generated by slaughterhouses ought to be disposed of by rendering. The huge quantity of worldwide bone waste generation (130 billion kilograms per annum) is an environmental burden if not properly managed. The waste animal bones can be efficiently employed as a heterogeneous catalyst to produce biodiesel. This mini review summarized the recent literature reported for biodiesel generation using waste animal bones derived heterogeneous catalyst. It discusses the sources of bone waste, catalyst preparation methods, particularly calcination and its effects, and important characteristics of bones derived catalyst. It suggests that catalysts extracted from waste animal bones have suitable catalytic activity in transesterification of different oil sources to generate a good quality biodiesel. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste animal bones; heterogeneous catalyst; calcination; biodiesel; catalytic activity waste animal bones; heterogeneous catalyst; calcination; biodiesel; catalytic activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussain, F.; Alshahrani, S.; Abbas, M.M.; Khan, H.M.; Jamil, A.; Yaqoob, H.; Soudagar, M.E.M.; Imran, M.; Ahmad, M.; Munir, M. Waste Animal Bones as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production; A Mini Review. Catalysts 2021, 11, 630. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050630

AMA Style

Hussain F, Alshahrani S, Abbas MM, Khan HM, Jamil A, Yaqoob H, Soudagar MEM, Imran M, Ahmad M, Munir M. Waste Animal Bones as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production; A Mini Review. Catalysts. 2021; 11(5):630. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050630

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hussain, Fayaz, Saad Alshahrani, Muhammad M. Abbas, Haris M. Khan, Asif Jamil, Haseeb Yaqoob, Manzoore E.M. Soudagar, Muhammad Imran, Mushtaq Ahmad, and Mamoona Munir. 2021. "Waste Animal Bones as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production; A Mini Review" Catalysts 11, no. 5: 630. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050630

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