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Open AccessArticle

Synthesis and Characterization of Iron-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Ferrocene from Flame Spray Pyrolysis

1
Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
2
Imaging and Characterization Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Physics, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates
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Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
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Clean Combustion Research Center (CCRC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Zielińska-Jurek
Catalysts 2021, 11(4), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11040438
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 24 March 2021 / Accepted: 25 March 2021 / Published: 29 March 2021
Iron-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles, with Fe/Ti atomic ratios from 0% to 10%, were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), employing a single-step method. Ferrocene, being nontoxic and readily soluble in liquid hydrocarbons, was used as the iron source, while titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used as the precursor for TiO2. The general particle characterization and phase description were examined using ICP-OES, XRD, BET, and Raman spectroscopy, whereas the XPS technique was used to study the surface chemistry of the synthesized particles. For particle morphology, HRTEM with EELS and EDS analyses were used. Optical and magnetic properties were examined using UV–vis and SQUID, respectively. Iron doping to TiO2 nanoparticles promoted rutile phase formation, which was minor in the pure TiO2 particles. Iron-doped nanoparticles exhibited a uniform iron distribution within the particles. XPS and UV–vis results revealed that Fe2+ was dominant for lower iron content and Fe3+ was common for higher iron content and the iron-containing particles had a contracted band gap of ~1 eV lower than pure TiO2 particles with higher visible light absorption. SQUID results showed that doping TiO2 with Fe changed the material to be paramagnetic. The generated nanoparticles showed a catalytic effect for dye-degradation under visible light. View Full-Text
Keywords: flame synthesis; flame spray pyrolysis; titanium dioxide; iron-doping; dye degradation flame synthesis; flame spray pyrolysis; titanium dioxide; iron-doping; dye degradation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ismail, M.A.; Hedhili, M.N.; Anjum, D.H.; Singaravelu, V.; Chung, S.H. Synthesis and Characterization of Iron-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Ferrocene from Flame Spray Pyrolysis. Catalysts 2021, 11, 438. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11040438

AMA Style

Ismail MA, Hedhili MN, Anjum DH, Singaravelu V, Chung SH. Synthesis and Characterization of Iron-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Ferrocene from Flame Spray Pyrolysis. Catalysts. 2021; 11(4):438. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11040438

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ismail, Mohamed A.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Singaravelu, Venkatesh; Chung, Suk H. 2021. "Synthesis and Characterization of Iron-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Ferrocene from Flame Spray Pyrolysis" Catalysts 11, no. 4: 438. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11040438

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